Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to- date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the. Apr 1, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 1. Monica Cheesbrough. This content is only available as a PDF. Download all figures. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries . Part 1, 2nd edition. Monica Cheesbrough, Tropical Health Technology, Norfolk PDF; Export citation.
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Jul 18, Microbiology practice and quality assurance in district laboratories. .. the publication of the first edition of Part 2 District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries in , .. in subunits and in Part 1 of the book). Appendices. 3. Gernot Minke. Building with Earth. Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Birkhäuser – District Laboratory Practice in Tropical. this author. First Published April 1, Book Review PDF download for x; District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Article Information.
Population movements, especially from the eastern neighbouring countries endemic for malaria, have been noted as an important factor. A study conducted in the south of Iran showed that the presence of foreign immigrants could cause malaria outbreaks and change the classification of cleared up and potential foci [ 10 ].
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Thus, it seems that the increase in imported malaria cases is related to foreign immigrants, such as Pakistani and Afghan refugees [ 36 ]. Plasmodium vivax was found to be the dominant malaria parasite species in Iran.
It is reported globally and can develop in both temperate and tropical climates. Early appearance of its gametocytes, efficient transmission by Anopheles vectors at lower parasite densities, faster development of sporozoites within the mosquito and wider viable temperature ranges than P.
In addition, it was documented that the vector control methods, such as ITNs were more effective in reducing P.
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In , it was estimated that 2. It has been noted that an increased proportion of malaria cases among adult men is a notable epidemiological aspect in malaria-eliminating countries. This high proportion is related to occupational and behavioural factors that cause more contact with infective vectors than women.
A piece of research carried out in Thailand showed that malaria can be considered as a rural disease associated with agricultural labourers [ 40 ].
A study conducted in China reported that socio-economic development is very relevant to malaria reduction. It was concluded that labourers may not have been paid enough to be able to afford malaria treatment [ 41 ].
Another study also showed that malaria in overseas Chinese labourers who returned to China represented an increasing trend in the — period.
The researchers explained that due to global economic integration, a large number of labourers may emigrate to malaria-endemic countries [ 42 ]. However, it seems that because of free health care services, especially malaria treatment in Iran, the economic conditions of rural residents have no effect on malaria outbreaks, but their social situation can affect knowledge, attitude and practice [ 13 ].
Generally, the epidemiological classification is calculated based on a compilation of criteria [ 43 ]. The classification of malaria cases as autochthonous, indigenous, induced, imported or relapsing are very important and needs an improved surveillance health system [ 11 ]. Additionally, although asymptomatic infections are uncommon among contacts of human EVD cases [ 24 ], they may be a more common outcome of direct zoonotic spillover, e.
Accounting for outbreaks that become less infectious over time due to, e. We therefore expect that models combining our analysis with more accurate dynamics of EVD and its control would estimate lower detection rates than we present here.
It is possible that all these factors render our results underestimations of the true frequency of spillover. If our underestimation is particularly extreme, it is possible hundreds or thousands of EVD spillovers have gone undetected, potentially explaining high seroprevalence of Ebola virus antibodies in some populations [ 26 ]. Due to these and other assumptions with less clear consequences, we intend this analysis not as a precise quantification of rates of EVD detection, but rather as a demonstration of the high probability that many spillovers go undetected and that many large outbreaks are not detected early.
The regions from which our data come may be unrepresentative in ways we have not considered; no EVD spillovers have been reported in Sierra Leone, so the generalizability of the Sierra Leone dataset to the typical spillover case is unknown. Finally, we assume that each documented outbreak had a single index case from spillover.
While we know of no outbreaks with multiple index cases, the origins of some have not been fully traced, and outbreaks originating from a multiple-spillover event are less likely to die out stochastically [ 27 ]. There is a clear need to improve outbreak detection and rapid response, and investment in these areas is among the most efficient ways of reducing EVD mortality [ 28 ].
Paving the way, Uganda instated a viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance programme in that has increased the number of outbreaks detected while reducing their mean size and mean time to confirmation [ 29 ].
We note that Uganda is one of only two countries to have detected spillovers resulting in a single case S2 Table , which we expect to be the true most common outbreak size.
Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce higher incidences of kidney damage and some irreversible diseases. PCBs and cyclodienes are linked to liver toxicity. Organophosphates and carbonates can induce a chain of responses leading to neuromuscular blockage. Many chlorinated solvents induce liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system. There is an entire spectrum of further health effects such as headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash for the above cited and other chemicals.
At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants can cause death by exposure via direct contact, inhalation or ingestion of contaminants in groundwater contaminated through soil. The overall aim of the project is to work up guidance that should be useful to Scottish Local Authorities in assessing whether sites represent a significant possibility of significant harm SPOSH to human health.
It is envisaged that the output of the project will be a short document providing high level guidance on health risk assessment with reference to existing published guidance and methodologies that have been identified as being particularly relevant and helpful. The project will examine how policy guidelines have been developed for determining the acceptability of risks to human health and propose an approach for assessing what constitutes unacceptable risk in line with the criteria for SPOSH as defined in the legislation and the Scottish Statutory Guidance.
Ecosystem effects[ edit ] Not unexpectedly, soil contaminants can have significant deleterious consequences for ecosystems.
These changes can manifest in the alteration of metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods resident in a given soil environment. The result can be virtual eradication of some of the primary food chain, which in turn could have major consequences for predator or consumer species.
District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1 - medical
Even if the chemical effect on lower life forms is small, the lower pyramid levels of the food chain may ingest alien chemicals, which normally become more concentrated for each consuming rung of the food chain.
Many of these effects are now well known, such as the concentration of persistent DDT materials for avian consumers, leading to weakening of egg shells, increased chick mortality and potential extinction of species.
Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, often causing a reduction in crop yields. This has a secondary effect upon soil conservation , since the languishing crops cannot shield the Earth's soil from erosion. Some of these chemical contaminants have long half-lives and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from decay of primary soil contaminants. Various technologies have been developed for remediation of oil-contaminated soil and sediments  There are several principal strategies for remediation: Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact.
This technique also applies to dredging of bay muds containing toxins. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site with attendant risk of creating air pollution Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapor extraction.
Bioremediation , involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals. Techniques used in bioremediation include landfarming , biostimulation and bioaugmentating soil biota with commercially available microflora. Extraction of groundwater or soil vapor with an active electromechanical system, with subsequent stripping of the contaminants from the extract.
Containment of the soil contaminants such as by capping or paving over in place. Phytoremediation, or using plants such as willow to extract heavy metals.In , it was estimated that 2. Thus, it seems that the increase in imported malaria cases is related to foreign immigrants, such as Pakistani and Afghan refugees [ 36 ].
Draft SGVs for benzene, naphthalene and xylene have been produced but their publication is on hold. Nevertheless, they were not proven and had been reported as probable cases [ 47 ]. Nowadays, malaria transmission is restricted to the south and southeast of Iran, in Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan and Kerman provinces, with very low incidence [ 13 ].