ADRIAN FRUTIGER TYPEFACES THE COMPLETE WORKS PDF

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Adrian Frutiger Typefaces the Complete Works - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Diseño gráfico y tipografías. adrian frutiger typefaces the complete works pdf - Google Search. Adrian Frutiger – Typefaces. The Complete Works eBook (PDF): Publication Date: November ; Copyright year: ; ISBN: See all formats and The international creation of typefaces after was decisively influenced by the Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger. His Univers typeface and the.


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Adrian Frutiger (May 24, – September 12, ) was a typeface designer who influenced the direction of digital typography in the second. Adrian Frutiger first came to the design world's attention in the late s with his design of Univers and the numbering concept behind it. One thing I can say is that Adrian Frutiger played an important part in my development as . and was a major factor leading to my interest in designing typefaces.

Other tasks fell to me. OCR-B set me the problem of designing characters that were readable not only to the human eye, but also to mechanical ones something that stirred up, shall we say, an aesthetic conict that taught me how to think about things in a dif- ferent way. With the signage concepts for the airports and the Paris Mtro I worked on large-scale typefaces. Thats how I came to realise that, in all sizes, readability follows the same rules about counters and side bearings.

When I was asked to think about the Indian typefaces, this uncharted territory amazed me.

Only when I began to write and draw the characters, did I become aware of the deep-seated connections between the Indo-European cultures. It took only a short time for me to grasp that my task consisted of imparting years of Western experience in setting and printing technology. My Indian colleagues would have to nd their own way forward from there.

The evolution of these letters this continual simplication from symbol to sound is something that has always preoccupied me. I was always fascinated by the symbol as the expression of a signature, a brand, and above all, a cipher. This connection between letters and symbols brought me into the commercial world of the logo as an area of operation. In the course of my working life I built up knowledge and skill. To impart those achievements and experiences to the next generation became the most important thing.

In May the intellectual climate changed. In their impetuousness, the students pushed their craft to one side and tried to solve problems simply by force of intellect. I could never express myself only through words, without using my hands and the tools of my trade. So I have chronicled my legacy in my books, through my writing and my drawing. On my career path I learned to understand that beauty and readability and up to a certain point, banality are close bedfellows: the best typeface is the one that impinges least on the readers consciousness, becoming the sole tool that communicates the mean- ing of the writer to the understanding of the reader.

Denken und Schaffen einer Typographie The book that you are holding is the result of many conversations between myself and friends from the profession, conducted over a period of two years at my studio in Bremgar- ten near Bern.

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Erich Alb, Rudolf Barmettler and Philipp Stamm used their subtle but at the same time direct questioning and discussing to awake in me memories that, for years, had been deeply buried.

For that I am grateful to them. We met once a month, and talked about my typeface design work in chronological order. Without the discussions between specialists, my friends in the profession, and other advisors, this book would never have happened.

My thanks go to Heidrun Osterer, Philipp Stamm, my above-mentioned colleagues, and to Silvia Werfel, who transformed the tran- scripts into proper German. In Erich Alb, publisher of Syndor Press approached us to carry out the design of a book about the typo- graphical work of Adrian Frutiger.

We gladly agreed, little realising what the project would become a task that would dene our working lives for the next decade. The project began in , at a dinner held to celebrate a Linotype typeface competi- tion, during the course of which Friedrich Friedl suggested during a conversation with Adrian Frutiger that he write his professional memoirs.

Frutiger rose to the challenge and Syndor Press, publishers of Frutigers books between and , undertook the planning of a multi-volume edition. The rst volume, which dealt with Frutigers ne art works, appeared in under the title Forms and Counterforms. The content of the second vol- ume, containing his typographical works, had burgeoned so much that we were brought in as designers in During the development of the design concept we were faced with many questions regarding content, simply because our involvement in Adrian Frutigers typeface creation runs so deep.

Between and , in a series of intensive discussions with Adrian Frutiger, Erich Alb, Rudolf Barmettler and Philipp Stamm analysed and examined the ori- gins and development of each of his typefaces. These conversations were recorded on tape. In we undertook a month-long research journey through France, England and Ger- many, to gather as much material as possible from libraries, museums and antiquarian booksellers, as well as from public and private collections.

We also sought out people who had worked with Adrian Frutiger or who were still in contact with him, and during the course of some long and wide-ranging interviews we deepened our knowledge of Adrian Frutigers lifes work. In our discussions with Erich Alb we tried to exert a little more inuence over the books concept. This wasnt always successful, but the project was making progress until the moment at the end of when Syndor Press was forced into liquidation. At that time we were already far more familiar with the deeper material, and after securing Erich Alb and Adrian Frutigers agreement, decided to carry the project forward ourselves, becoming the books authors as well as its designers.

The collected documents pertaining to Adrian Frutigers work were transferred from Syndor Press in Cham to our ofces in Basel, so that we would always have the originals at our disposal for consultation and reproduction. In order to get an overview of the material and to see how we were going to organise the chapters in the book, we began to form an archive of all the documents from Adrian Frutiger, as well as those that we had collected on our travels.

The question was, of course, what would ultimately become of all this material? And so, starting in October , during many meetings over the course of two years, a group of six people prepared the establishment of Swiss Foundation Type and Typography, whose founding member was to be Adrian Frutiger. The work on the book continued in parallel.

We started, basically, at the beginning, throwing out a lot of original concepts, and completely reworking the ideas for the design and contents.

Only the size format of the rst volume of the originally planned series was retained. The reaction was very positive, and, above all, Adrian Frutiger was grateful that his typo- graphical work would be so comprehensively documented. The setting up of the Foundation was yet under way, and took up a lot of time and energy, so much so that the book was pushed somewhat into the background. But further research travels and interviews were also being conducted that enabled us to answer questions that were becoming ever more exacting and searching.

The Linotype company opened up its archive and entrusted us with the remaining original design drawings of Adrian Frutigers typefaces for Swiss Foundation Type and Typography.

We undertook research into type design and history and re-appraised the material we had on hand. Our colleagues scanned in these typefaces and, over many hours, prepared them for the examples in the book. New typefaces by Adrian Frutiger for Linotype necessitated an ongoing enlargement of the books scope. We also needed to nd a publisher for the book and draw up a contract.

And still the questions rolled in, and the discussions contin- ued. There were many delays, and many clarications were necessary including the question of who was actually now the author of the book. The transcriptions of the interviews were edited by us before being sent to Silvia Werfel, a specialist journalist, who took Adrian Frutigers words and translated them into owing prose.

In summer , the publishing contract with Birkhuser was nally signed, and we began to compose the ancillary texts that would frame Adrian Frutigers typefac- es against a background of typographic history and contemporary typographic design.

As Silvia Werfels texts came in, we gave them the nishing touches. At this point, with the solid support of our co-workers, the available material for the chapters had already been sounded out, sorted, and built into the layout. That the project has come to a successful conclusion with the book you are now hold- ing is due to many people. First and foremost, we must thank the extreme patience and good will of Adrian Frutiger, who read every chapter and gave his input on each of them.

Furthermore, we would like to thank the Foundation, which backed us nancially; Linotype, in whose company archives we were allowed to research at any time without hindrance; Silvia Werfel, who captured the nuances of Adrian Frutigers speech, and whose transcripts provided an excellent foundation for the chapters; Erich Alb and Bruno Pffi, who scrupu- lously proofread the book using two very different approaches; the translators and proof- readers of the English and French editions, in particular Paul Shaw, who read the chapters in the already translated English version with a critical and scholarly eye and who made small improvements here and there; Birkhuser Verlag, for their appreciation and support of our work; and, naturally, our colleagues and co-workers, who, in spite of little compen- sation, have given us their committed support, and who transformed our ideas and supple- mented them with their own.

And let us not forget the worldwide support be it moral or in the form of further information and documents that we have encountered everywhere, and which gave us the strength to bring together the three available language editions of this work. It was planned to be published in time for Adrian Frutigers 80th birthday in the spring of but at least we managed it by autumn of the same year.

Mistakes that were iden- tied and about which we have been informed for which our sincerest thanks have been corrected. An essential improvement in relation to the rst edition is the index. Wherever possible, we have updated material; now, for example, the digital version of Phoebus is shown in its complete form.

Time constraints made it impossible to discuss the additional fonts that have meanwhile been published by Linotype all of them reworked versions of earlier typefaces by Adrian Frutiger ; they are however listed in the individual chapters and in an appendix. Sans serif faces from — 62 have horizontally cut curved ends and are more balanced and matter-of-fact.

The a shapes of the original Akzidenz Grotesk vary greatly in comparison to Univers, which was conceived of as one family. On the other hand, some designers — for example the Zurich school — regard it alongside Berthold Akzidenz Grotesk or Helvetica. They deem Univers too smooth and conformist. Type design often runs dangerously parallel to fashion crazes and the restlessness of our times. Thus we see more than a few typefaces whose style is dated long before their technical application is.

This hunger for change and for all things unusual is a genuine need, and to some degree we ought to honour that. However, in the face of changing fashions we have to create something really durable, in our case a standard typeface. Stempel AG in and named Helvetica were released at the same time as Univers in Recta followed in and Permanent in All of these typefaces have horizontally cut curve ends in common. Univers was also one of the starting points for Haas Unica, a reconceived version of Helvetica in I made the numerals narrow on purpose.

This is most noticeable with the zero, which is impossible to confuse with the O. My numerals were always narrower than the uppercase alphabet. This is also the case with classic typefaces, apart from old style numerals, of course. So there was only one 1. Monotype made an alternative narrow version with less side bearing.

There are differences to other typefaces in the Univers individual letters. An upstroke is something simple and not so fanciful, horizontal with a bump in it. Accordingly, my 1 is simple, like the 7 is too. I always clearly distinguished symbols, numerals and letters.

On the printed page it should look more like an exclamation mark and less like a 2. The Germans criticised this, because diaeresis and letter are always one unit to them where everything has to be close together.

All the other adaptations are something of a sorry tale. In the contract with Monotype was signed — a wise move for Peignot because the expansion of these machines was a worldwide sensation. Stanley Morison made the decision for Monotype. He said that Univers was the least bad sans serif face. There were technical difficulties.

The small f, the t, the capitals — they all seem squashed. I would discuss it for hours with John Dreyfus and the technicians. I could point out that they needed to be wider than the t, but nothing could be done about. Univers was consulted for the reworking of Helvetica into Haas Unica by A. Mengelt and E.

Adrian Frutiger - typefaces : the complete works

One of the few inconsistencies of Univers — in two weights the curve is cut vertically, while in the others it is horizontal. Because his ampersand was largely unaccepted, Frutiger designed a traditional looped one as an alternative.

Compared to Akzidenz Grotesk left and Helvetica right , Univers middle has the simplest form. Univers below appears more harmonious and much smoother than the earlier sans serif faces like Akzidenz Grotesk top. Curve endings have been unified on Univers lowercase — they are cut off horizontally at the same height.

The heights of the letters are not uniform in Akzidenz Grotesk above , whereas in Univers, unusually, even the accents are aligned. Frutiger, E. Ruder and P. Heuer write about its conception and production over 60 pages. Advertisements by Hans-Rudolf Lutz from the s for Monotype showing the spatial modulation of Univers. Texts in different languages appear homogenous in Univers, unlike Futura left — the relation of x-height to ascenders and descenders is the key. Sie dienen alle zum selben, aber machen die Vielfalt des Menschen aus.

Diese Vielfalt ist wie beim Wein. You may ask why so many different typefaces. They all serve the same purpose but they express mans diversity. It is the same diversity we find in wine. All of them were wines but each was different. Nevertheless Univers was influenced by Monotype in the end because many small foundries simply cast the Monotype matrices, used it for hand composition as well, even though it was a poor second-hand copy to start with.

The Univers versions for the various photo- or lasersetting systems, be they Compugraphic, Linotype, Adobe or Bitstream, are all based on the inferior Monotype matrices. It comes very close to the original Univers, even though Lange allows himself some minimal liberties.

I can vividly recall the fruitless discussions at D. Stempel AG when the first Univers adaptations for Linofilm were produced. The uppercase italics were just slanted uprights with no reworking whatsoever. The reduced tilt angle was for linecasting. I found that for photosetting, having no physical body, one could try a completely different slope, so that it would really show a clear contrast. The sharp inclination was immediately criticised. They said it was on the verge of falling over, it was always a topic of discussion.

Some of them thought it was fun, while to others it was a thorn in their side. I stuck to my opinion that there ought to be a real difference between an upright and an oblique. At Linotype Univers was for a long time a necessary evil, an orphan that nobody really cared for.

I really suffered for it. Helvetica, however, was preened and constantly improved, so becoming a top successful product. It was only Bruno Steinert, managing director at Linotype, who initiated the reworked Linotype Univers in , which actually went back to the hot metal originals.

The impetus for renewal came from Deutsche Bank, who were changing their corporate design. The agency responsible for the corporate design chose the Univers — like Anton Stankowski — as their inhouse typeface. I was overwhelmed and felt a certain amount of satisfaction.

They asked me to help determine the extreme poles. Interpolating was easy, but extrapolating was impossible. I corrected the slanted fonts by. It is an extension of Univers. It says in the Antique Presse brochure that clients had complained they had no fonts for large scale newspaper headline setting, and so they had to make their own photographic enlargements and photo-engraved plates. An article about Ladislas Mandel in Etapes Graphiques states: This is the first creation by Mandel.

Mandel explains that he designed non-classical shapes for a, S and G, so as to fill the empty spaces and achieve a homogenous colour. Antique Presse was made in three weights with upperand lowercase letters from 48 to 94 pt. The typeface disappeared altogether with the demise of hot metal setting. Linotype did not make it for photosetting. Adrian Frutiger included Antique Presse in a list of his own creations for the first and only time in The counters are as open as possible in order to be acceptably legible in such small sizes.

Its increased stroke contrast and widening of letters also improved legibility. As a result, Univad 55 looks like Univers 55 but is strictly speaking a The shapes of some letters were altered from those of Univers. R has a straight downstroke, W is steeper, 5, 6 and 9 are more open. Q, like Antique Presse, has a slightly downward offset cross-stroke. This typeface has been unavailable since photosetting stopped being used. Univad right , a Univers designed by Ladislas Mandel for agate sizes — here in 5 pt — was made in for photosetting on Photon machines.

Non-latin typefaces In the 20th century there was increasing modernisation of non-Latin typefaces, whose shapes were simplified to sans serif shapes. They were based on roman models in proportion, rhythm, stroke contrast and also form. Among others, Univers is the source of many adaptations. Seeing as only a few letters coincide between the Cyrillic and Latin roman alphabets, Adrian Frutiger explained in a letter to Walter Greisner that he regarded this design as a new creation.

He took his cue from the Cyrillic cursive script, whose letter shapes often vary greatly from the printed forms. He adapted his typeface to match the Univers widths. The traditionally strong horizontal strokes of Hebrew were made thinner than the vertical strokes, following the Latin rhythm.

It runs along two lines only, with some exceptions. The square basic shapes of its characters are hard to reconcile with the proportions of Univers. This Univers enlargement was, despite help from software programs, a mammoth task. After two years of intensive work with Reinhard Haus, the monumental project was complete.

The new Linotype Univers is, on the whole, better than most other versions, but to be frank I find it a little exaggerated to develop such a huge family.

A stolen version was released by Bitstream. They gave Univers a different name: Swiss All the different adaptations for various systems are a real muddle. What should young designers do when confronted by them? I just hope they have an educated eye, so they can see and feel the differences intuitively, and not with their heads. The Israeli graphic designer Asher Oron designed the Hebrew sans serif typeface family Oron, which matches Univers, in In , fifteen years after the first Univers weights were released by Linotype, there were still only 19 weights in their type specimen, including Univers 65 reversed.

Compugraphic also had two reversed weights, Berthold had three outline weights. In the extrablack Univers 85 was re-released, Univers 93 followed five years later, but Univers 83 is still missing. Adobe went back to the Linotype version when digitising the typefaces for PostScript. Unfortunately this tends to be the case with manufacturers, because users want the same fonts they were used to from the previous version, but at the same time they need them adapted quickly for the new technology.

Repeated adaptations make typefaces differ from the originals, as is the case with Univers. The oblique weights changed the most. The first PostScript version of Univers by Adobe from is full of mistakes.

Extended characters include old-style figures like small caps still in demand , more f ligatures 42, the most frequently used accents in European languages, as well as swashes and mathematical symbols. Linotype final artwork for the 12 pt design size of schoolbook and phonetic characters in Univers Small caps for Univers 55 are available from Monotype and Linotype; the latter also has alternative shapes for 4, 6 and 9.

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Linotype final artwork of letters from the international phonetic alphabet corresponding to Univers Typeface comparison The fact that Univers, Helvetica and Folio all shown below were released practically at the same time demonstrates that there was a real need for a modern sans serif face.

The closed shape of the curves, which is unlike other existing sans serifs, is a typical feature, as are the consistently balanced character widths and ascenders reduced to the cap height throughout the typeface. Helvetica regular is slightly heavier than Univers, whereas Folio is lighter. The fact that there is no Folio roman weight has to be taken into account.

In the example shown Folio light is used. That Univers has something lively about it in spite of its static appearance is due to its stroke width contrast, which is highly pronounced. On the whole, Univers is the most balanced typeface of the three, due not only to its optimal black and white relationship, but also to its clear shapes free of excess elements, most clearly visible in G K a and y. The black and white relation of Univers is optimally balanced when compared with the other two typefaces.

Height comparison showing the differences of x-heights to ascenders and descenders — the cap height is the starting point. It was one of the first machine-readable typefaces that came from the United States. For the European OCR manufacturers it was a given that the shape of its capitals would never be accepted over here, and they were intent on coming up with a European answer, OCR-B, that would be aesthetic and pleasant to the human eye.

In a first meeting they explained their goals: The problem with this task was that all companies that were members of ECMA had developed their own readers and each of those worked in a different way; some read the counter, others the contours and yet others the centreline.

First they had to agree on a common grid. Then, at one of the following meetings, they gave me a template and said the typeface would be read according to these points. I would always draw curves in my designs. In my studio we created hundreds of drawings, all filled in with black.

If a cell was more than half full it counted as a plus, if it was less than half full it counted as a minus. Initially only horizontal steps were possible but later the cells could also be divided diagonally.

The resulting computations were done by the computer firms. They looked after legibility and the typewriter manufacturers looked after the execution of the typeface. Up until this point only numerals and capitals had been important but now we also had to deal with lower case characters. As far as the letterpress shapes were concerned, it was important that I built them up from the centreline.

The discussion revolved around the question Worldwide standardisation Since the beginning of the 20th century many countries have devised national standards — for electrical sockets or paper sizes, for example. Due to growing globalisation an increasing need emerged to make these national standards compatible with each other.

The increasing use of computers, which were being produced by a growing number of manufacturers to their own standards, created the need to standardise basic operating technologies for software applications. With the main objective of coordinating the different computer standards, three companies — Compagnie des Machines Bull, IBM World Trade Europe Corporation and International Computers and Tabulators Limited — initiated a meeting of all major European computer manufacturers that led to the foundation of ECMA in , a private standards organisation for the standardisation of information and communication systems.

In the second, called Letterpress , the stroke weight was adapted according to optical criteria and the terminations were angular. Initially OCR-B was monospaced. Additionally the width of the glyphs varied, i.

Besides the drawing and manufacture of the typeface, the technology for reading and processing information was important. OCR-B, which was initially developed for typewriter setting, was swiftly adapted to other typesetting systems for example Monotype in 5 and is still used in contemporary computerised technologies.

Frutiger was one of the first designers worldwide who — with regards to machine-readable typefaces — dealt with questions of aesthetics in combination with technology. This led to his giving numerous talks on the subject, the first of which took place in in Paris at the ATypI conference.

The people responsible at the time understood that there were two different worlds: Back in the s, being able to machine-read books was still a dream. But we all agreed that this would be ideal. There was a fountain of ideas, we were even talking about automatic translation.

In the meetings I would always hand out photocopies of the drawings produced in my studio to each participant. Each of them would then go off and do their own maths in their respective companies and come up with a different result. Initially it was just some impenetrable gobbledygook for me when the engineers were discussing all their paper computer print-outs full of numbers, but after a while I began to understand what they were talking about.

If they came to the conclusion that part of a shape was too wide, too narrow, too high or too low, we would note the changes with a pencil on the drawings right there and then in the meeting. Machine-readable typefaces Initially the shapes of OCR typefaces optical character recognition were solely determined by the reading technology of computers. They had to be simplified or stylised. The only criterion was that of correct recognition. It was based on a matrix of 7 by 10 cells.

Its numerals and capitals were each constructed using seven strokes of constant weight whereas the counters varied. Initially it only contained numerals, capitals and a few special characters but was later extended to include lowercase letters as well. Progenitors of the numerals in OCR-A: Additionally, this test was carried out using two different printing weights: Even if the fine and fat weights were superimposed — the original weight could be fattened by a factor of up to 1.

It shows a vastly fattened N and a thin M, which the computer had to clearly identify as such based on the difference shown in red. Furthermore, the paper should not be reflective and the type should not bear any stains.

There followed a period of rapid technological progress: It made no difference to us, we just had to do the work three times over. For one year we were practically fully occupied with the development of these matrices. Of utmost importance was the difference between capitals and numerals. The B-8 combination caused us some major headache: Since the numerals were of correct proportions right from the start and thus formed the basis for the standard, all the capitals of the typeface were eventually scaled down.

For the typewriters all characters had to be of even width, these were monospaced faces. That the D eventually turned out to be a bad shape might have been due to technical issues. The C too turned out far too narrow in the end.

If there had been a gap in the centreline, the reader would possibly have read the K as a stroke and a chevron. Serifs increase the similarity between characters and are therefore less suitable for machine-readers.

In the design, it is important to strive for the greatest possible differentiation whilst avoiding a stylised look. The differentiation, and thus correct recognition, must still be guaranteed in the worst possible case where a character is fattened by a factor of 1.

With Univers top , the majuscules are wider and higher than the numerals; the opposite is true for OCR-B bottom. Characters that are very similar in shape get a serif, horizontal bar or curved stroke in OCR-B bottom. Reference point drawing, Letterpress version with stroke contrast and outlined skeleton letter shape with centreline. Letterpress angular and linear version round with taller proportions — neither was developed further.

Centreline of the capital S in the linear version with even greater vertical scaling. Correct character recognition of the skeleton line and contour in spite of interference caused by squashing or staining.

Comparison method — point resolution for data capture in black; final artwork and difference between B and 8 in colour. First test version of OCR-B from with dynamic curved strokes for b g q, alternative m and similar shapes for capital O and the numeral 0. First published version of OCR-B from with curved diagonals for W, greater difference between O and zero and different crossing for 8. The bowl shapes of the majuscules were static, while there are two types of bowl shapes in the minuscules: All numerals had dynamic shapes but the curves varied: Initially Frutiger designed the majuscules so they were of the same height as the numerals, but for the first test version the former were scaled down to differentiate them more clearly.

Some characters had undergone considerable correction. This is obvious with the W, whose outer diagonals became curved; with the numeral 0, which received a more oval shape to differentiate itself better from the capital O; with j, which now had a normally placed dot; as well as with the aforementioned b g q, which now featured static bowl shapes.

The had obviously changed, whereas the slight incline in the numeral 1 was hardly visible. Altogether the typeface now had a more consistent shape compared to the test version. Five more characters were added: OCR-B from with horizontal bar for j, curved descender for y, very wide B, and altered shapes for capital O, lower case o and zero. Extension of the alphabet from with additional accents and diacritics for several European languages.

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With the D, the curved stroke now started directly at the stem, the O was more oval; the zero, on the other hand, had become more angular. The Q was adapted in shape to the O and the tail of the Q was altered. The j was changed yet again and, similar to the i, it now had a horizontal bar while the y received a curved descender.

Eventually all corrections — those that are listed here and others — were not beneficial in terms of shape; instead Frutiger had acknowledged the overarching goal of character recognition. Instead the number of characters was successively extended.

The additional characters were mainly due to the inclusion of special characters for different languages. Every now and again the secretary general of ECMA, Dara Hekimi, asked us whether we wanted to draw the ligatures for a particular country. These characters were no longer controlled by the whole ECMA committee, they were defined as either legible or illegible by the respective country.

They were also no longer subject to that complicated comparison process. Special national characters were only available in the respective countries. The ij ligature for instance can only be found in Dutch machines. One could have given the C endings, the bottom of the g and also the S a vertical instead of a horizontal termination. This would certainly have been possible in terms of technology and recognition.

The open shape was already there but I only became aware of its better legibility when I carried out the numerous legibility studies for the signage face Roissy. From that point onwards I felt the stroke endings of Univers were too closed. OCR-B as a proportional font in the Letterpress version top and as a monospaced font in the constantstroke version for typewriters bottom.

The search for an unambiguous shape — the numeral zero top and the capital O bottom in comparison from , and A generous letter spacing is needed for machine-readable characters — the characters must not touch each other. The numeral 6 appears to be wider in the diagonal in the digital version by Linotype centre — original left , Berthold right. The digital version of the lower case c by Linotype centre is rounder than the original version from left and the Berthold version.

Applications Since the s machine-readable typefaces have been used for data recognition and processing. They can be found on cheques, bank statements, postal forms and credit cards.

They are, however, increasingly being replaced by typefaces for typewriters and newsprint or bookwork since those are now equally readable, and because data are no longer transferred via printed type, but stored on magnetic strips or chips. But this application disappeared with the arrival of data exchange via floppy discs.

OCR-A and OCR-B eventually found their fashionable expression in the graphic design of the s where they were seen as techno, cool and trendy. First of all, I wanted to design beautiful, new typefaces. I always felt obliged, however, to bring something new to the type selection meetings at Linotype. There were two to three of these meetings per year and I never went there without some sketches or a glued sample character string.

But neither D. Stempel AG nor Linotype explicitly commissioned the design of particularly technology-friendly typefaces. All these things developed in my thinking, in my head. Each day was different for me; each day brought a new idea. I was bubbling with ideas. There was an inner urge to do creative work. That would have killed me.

However, I could never totally ignore the technical aspects. There were no systematic explorative studies for Breughel. During this period, however, many other sketches were developed. It shows a few similarities but there are also differences. If I had a good idea, I sketched it out for two to three days, polished it, filled the contours in with black and had the letters glued together to make a word image.

After all, this represented a first business investment. Stempel AG a penny. Back then, when I saw the results of digitisation with all those stepped edges I was horrified. Should I have twiddled my thumbs and simply waited? The long curves of the slightly tapered downstrokes and concave serifs had to be avoided. Through the contrast between the straight line and the deep curve the typeface comes alive; additionally, this allows for it to be digitised without suffering any damage.

The Typographic designs for Breughel At the end of the s and the beginning of the s, Adrian Frutiger developed different but, in terms of shape, related typographic designs. The order in which they were created is not obvious since not all of the designs are dated. What they all have in common is a sturdy composition with strongly tapered strokes, which gives them a certain dynamic appearance. There are outline drawings with a This indicates that there were plans to implement this typeface.

There are differences, however, in the shape of the serifs, in the angle of the stress in the o and in the downstrokes, which are tapered on both sides. The stress of the o is less oblique and closer to that of Breughel. It is also interesting to compare the lowercase a in both designs. Typical for this kind of typeface are the more pronounced horizontal parts in comparison to the finer vertical ones and often also the narrow proportionof the typeface.

In , Adrian Frutiger designed an italienne with his Westside see page Proportional template of Breughel for the data capture of the steps — the strokes are tapered on one side, the serifs are slanted. Design of a typeface similar to Breughel top and another version derived from it with wedge serifs bottom. The design of Ritual is reminiscent of Breughel but also of an italienne such as the later Westside. Having a rounded transition here would have made the typeface altogether too soft.

That would perhaps conform more closely to the overall style because angles and edges are part of the basic shape of this typeface. The edginess, which is an intrinsic part, is missing in the lowercase b. What has always been problematic is the letter X, which is influenced so much by the Roman numeral. I would say that the upright ampersand is a compromise. It has neither my own nor a looped shape. Breughel was released in , in six sets. There was a tendency at the time to extend typefaces to larger families so that they could be sold at a higher price.

Excerpt from the Fabius Quintilianus in the typography by Nicolas Jenson top and in comparison with Breughel Bold. There is also no indication that Frutiger deliberately used the 15th-century typeface as a starting point. Nicolas Jenson gave his antiqua a very even structure see page The serifs have a sturdy, asymmetrical shape and the second and third downstrokes in the lowercase m are concave on the left hand side.

Thus, at the beginning of the design process, we find the development of a hand-lettered typeface: A relationship in terms of shape to the earlier Ondine see page 50 is obvious.

Similar to Icone — which was developed in parallel — the deep concave shape of the downstroke allows for a smaller radius, distributing pixellation over several steps. Humanist typeface suited for low resolution thanks both to the strokes being strongly tapered on one side only, and to flat, slanted serifs.

The grid of dividing a curve into single points has become second nature to me. The experience of pixellation has become part of my knowledge and therefore it is an inevitable aspect of the creative phase in the design process. Thus the creation of Breughel was the result of the idea of a digitisation-friendly typeface. Nonetheless however, for a medieval antiqua, I was not prepared to replace the swelling and shrinking of a lively downstroke with a hard and straight line.

This exploration resulted in the idea of having a concave curve on only the one side, although the concavity itself was more pronounced. The right-handside contour of the stem is thus a perfectly straight line, while the left-hand-side contour simulates a strong curve that is achieved through a relatively large number of pixellated steps.

In the scaled-down version at reading size, however, the eye perceives the curvature of the downstroke as an organic whole. Besides the marketing, the cost factor played an important role as well. It takes a lot of time and money before you get a roman, italic and bold right.

Adrian Frutiger Typefaces the Complete Works

Once these base shapes are done, further extension is easy. We also used the technological possibilities for the cursive. It was a mathematically sloped version, which, however, I refined manually. With its one-sided serifs for the lowercase letters, the cursive is a bit special. If I thought something was good, I did it. Breughel had oldstyle numerals and small capitals in the regular cut.

Instead of elegant and refined shapes, I was looking for something more grounded, with some meat on its bones, as it were, and with robust serifs.

For a long time I used to look down on Breughel a bit, by seeing it as a transitional solution based on technological restrictions. When I look back at it today, I discover its quality:Introduction, School days and education, Fonts: Besides the marketing, the cost factor played an important role as well.

This wasnt always successful, but the project was making progress until the moment at the end of when Syndor Press was forced into liquidation. Only the size format of the rst volume of the originally planned series was retained. Adrian Frutiger has subsequently gone on to further expand his wealth of experience in the eld of type design.

Tous servent au mme but, mais aussi exprimer la diversit de lhomme. Small caps for Univers 55 are available from Monotype and Linotype; the latter also has alternative shapes for 4, 6 and 9.

The inner spaces of the letters This can clearly be seen in the subtle hints of ascenders and descenders and in a few lowercase shapes such as are a special detail of Ondine. At secondary school Frutiger learnt the Hulliger Schrift handwriting system, Through yearly visits to Eberhard, Adrian Frutigers drawings received critical dissection.

In the example shown Folio light is used.