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Augusto Cury ; O funcionamento da mente. Nesta obra, o Dr. Anos uma teoria original sobre o funcionamento da mente humana. In CAS these properties occur together, which, in the specific domain of tourism destinations, leads to a new question mark: is the existence of DMOs relevant, or even necessary?
It is worth to be emphasized that Complex Adaptive Systems have the capacity to change and learn from experience. In other words, they are able to respond to and adjust themselves to changes in their environment, constantly adapting nonlinear relationships.
Ecosystems are typical examples of CAS, and, as indicated, destinations have been characterized as a tourism ecosystem. Its foundation is in the potential of the advances of information and communication technologies ICTs to address issues of great impact such sustainability, universal accessibility and innovation, with solutions based on these technologies.
In general, smartness or intelligence is related to the ability to understand and solve problems using knowledge based on data and information in the best possible manner.
In this effort, recent developments in the capacity of integrating and treating huge volumes of structured and unstructured data Big and Open Data has been extremely useful. The following components can be observed in it: -Levels.
BREVE RECORRIDO HISTÓRICO DE LA EMOCIÓN: DESDE PLATÓN HASTA DAMÁSIO Y LA TOMA DE DECISIONES
To understand better the development process of the tourism ecosystem under study and looking at elements that could be included, there should be a defined hierarchy, as follows: local level or core business ; intermediate level other stakeholders inside the business ecosystem ; and global level containing external influencing elements on it, such international competition and international markets.
The core business layer consists of the parties forming the heart of the tourism business: a focal organization for instance a public agency, or a business association or a network of several organizations tourism services suppliers, etc. They are recognized as external forces that affect the success of the tourism destination: technological change; research insights; changes in tourism customer demand; social change; competition and cooperation co-opetition ; policies and legal environment.
The main Complexity Theory concepts extracted for this model have been: self- organization and interaction, with reference of the elements of the tourism ecosystem, already mentioned.
On the one hand, the phenomenon of self-organization is central for the understanding of the behaviour of this kind of open systems. It means that there is no centralized control: the STBE organizes by itself in response to internal and external influences.
On the other hand, interaction feedback is the bidirectional transfer of information from one decision making agent to another. This information can be enhanced, suppressed or altered leading to an impact on the system.
ICTs are playing a decisive role in the intensification and effectiveness of information flows, which should lead to a smarter management. If accepted that a tourism destination fits the mould of what could be named as a complex adaptive ecosystem combining the approaches of complexity and business ecosystem , the next challenge is to allow a smart management of the tourism ecosystem in a destination, in the sense described in section 2.
In this reasoning, it is implicitly assumed that a managing body should exist in a destination to facilitate a development guided by certain values innovation, sustainability, quality of life , supported on a qualified human capital and built on an infrastructure of state-of-the-art technology.
In this sense, applying the concept of CAS to governance brings consequences for the view of leadership. Traditionally, leadership is about one single actor in charge. In CAS, leadership is incorporated in a multifocal way. As a matter of fact, in a global, digital and hyper-connected industry only by way of distributed intelligence adequate assessments of external and internal changes can be made in tourism destinations.
This means that the outcome of policy interventions cannot be known in advance as policy effects are themselves emergent properties Wagenaar, This point establishes an evident connection with planning. Planning in general is a process that is concerned with shaping the future trajectories of systems, which are systems with emergent properties in the situation been drawn in this paper.
In other words, we cannot generate an understanding of the nature of the system its past, present, and potential future trajectories by an analytical process in which we reduce the system conceptually to its elements and model it based on them.
More important than elements in themselves are interactions among them. This phenomenon can be clearly watched in a STD, where interactions, facilitated and magnified by its tech endowment, are critical as a source of new opportunities.
Management, in the context of Complexity Theory, means influencing the process of change of a CAS from one state to another, through anticipation and adaptation. In CAS, such as tourism destinations, governance systems have been characterized by five elements: 1.
These agents influence each other in mutual and multiple ways. At the same time, all agents are assumed to have relative autonomy. The layers and subsystems co-evolve with each other. Adaptive system development depends upon the interaction between the composing agents and their surrounding systems. The interaction between a nested governance system and its context can be visualized as a set of negative and positive feedback loops.
The interactions between agents will be changing over time and this will create a whimsical pattern. It is almost impossible to predict the dynamics in interaction, because each agent can decide to change course. Relatively small changes in those conditions may generate a significant system leaps. If we assume that these characteristics can be applied to any tourism destination, its smart character should lead to a type of governance according to these features, in which the reinforcement and continuous update of its technological base is essential, but by no means the only factor to consider.
Non-technological resources human and managerial are equally essential. Table 6. Creation of standardized products and one-way Co-creation based on conversation and product marketing.
Table of contents
Stable configuration of the destination; closed Dynamic and emergent nature of the destination, system, with defined borders, as determined by a the result of a continuous process of adaptation and set of a priori defined actors.
Relatively simple understanding of their behaviour. Much more complex understanding, with sometimes chaotic behaviours.
Predictability and controllability; linear dynamics Fluid reality, with nonlinear dynamics and very known cause-effect relationships. Limited and delayed access to information. Abundance of information in real time ; the problem is to select the relevant information. Source: Sheehan et al To conclude, in the light of the proposed framework of analysis, a final reflection on the future configuration of DMOs -Destination Marketing or Management Organizations-, as a significant component of the tourism ecosystem.
Natural and Artificial Computation for Biomedicine and Neuroscience
Destination Marketing Organizations are the sharpest example of tourism governance, and some voices argue that they will not be around in a few years, for several reasons: -The marketplace is now focused on direct relationships, controlled by the consumer.
The challenges that oppressed the ability of the small business to promote effectively, and therefore require a larger organization to promote on their collective behalf, are systematically being destroyed by IT developments and organizations such as Google, Facebook, Groupon, etc.
The consumer now has the ability to find unbiased information about anything on the planet external sources such TripAdvisor and others are more influential. Although these organizations have not followed a standard model, now it is time to move even beyond the usual public-private partnerships 3Ps , inserting a fourth p in this equation: people the local community as an essential stakeholder.
Public-private-people partnerships 4Ps should allow a better chance to survive and succeed adding value, driven by a stronger social commitment towards sustainability. The main question is if the world is changing too fast mainly because of the pattern of technology evolution -or tech revolution- for these organizations, many of them still too dependent of government agencies, and how to change accordingly.
What are the new roles of tourism governance, and the corresponding managing bodies, within the above mentioned Smart Tourism Business Ecosystem? This work is intended to offer some insights into this structural and critical issue.
For instance: -Nowadays, in the tourism industry of Internet, it is questioned if the existence of a central managing body, with a role of planning and coordination, is determinant for the definition of the strategy carried out by the destination, or rather this is an emergent consequence of the interactions among the diverse constituents of the complex system called destination and the dynamic adaptation of them feedback driven by the stimuli they received from external influencing factors, from the actions of other actors, and from the destination as a whole.
In a smart environment, the intelligence is more disseminated less centralized , and needs to be coordinate for a more effective learning process. For example, to set up the image projected by the destination.
Is this image the product of a deliberate effort or rather the result of an emergent behaviour, like that of a flock of birds classic example of a complex adaptive system taken from biology? However, it seems that: -When this partnership is claimed from the private side is for the public counterpart to provide all or a large stake of the funding required and demanded by companies.
The problem is when the public entity, promotion-oriented in still many cases, is strongly conditioned by some actor who is attributed a disproportionate weight based on the current reality of the industry, which has changed since that status quo became institutionalized. An intriguing question is how the strategy of a destination is formed. Now, in a smart context, it should be, supposedly, more influenced by a data-driven logic.
Nevertheless, power distribution will remain a good predictor, according to which the strategic priorities are the result of the influence power of the various actors involved in this process.
In this regard, the first problem arises when some actors of the tourism ecosystem are not given the room to participate in the strategic definition of the destination. A smart environment should help to better manage these issues. The facilitating factors for organizational learning: bringing ideas from complex adaptive systems.
Knowledge and Process Management, 10 2 , Duit, A. Governance and Complexity. Emerging Issues for Governance Theory. Eldelson, R. Review of General Psychology, 1 1 , Gretzel, U. Special issue on smart tourism: convergence of information technologies, experiences, and theories. Electronic Markets, 25 3 , Smart tourism: foundations and d velopments.
Hall, C.Some of the titles here were translated literally and aren't necessarily with their titles of their English versions. It means that there is no centralized control: the STBE organizes by itself in response to internal and external influences. Click the link below to download. This point establishes an evident connection with planning.
Acesso em Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 31 , — Physiological Reviews, 9 3 ,