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IN , Oscar Wilde published the first version of The Picture of. Dorian Gray in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. After vociferous public responses to the novel's. Oscar Wilde {} was one of Ireland's best and cleverest writers. His plays and children's stories, as well as The Picture of Dorian Gray, are still enjoyed. THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY O W was born in Dublin in, the son of an eminent surg Author: Wilde Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF.

As the painter looked at the gracious and comely form he had so skilfully mirrored in his art, a smile of pleasure passed across his face, and seemed about to linger there. But he suddenly started up, and closing his eyes, placed his fingers upon the lids, as though he sought to imprison within his brain some curious dream from which he feared he might awake.

The Academy is too large and too vulgar. Whenever I have gone there, there have been either so many people that I have not been able to see the pictures, which was dreadful, or so many pictures that I have not been able to see the people, which was worse. The Grosvenor is really the only place.

My dear fellow, why? Have you any reason? What odd chaps you painters are! You do anything in the world to gain a reputation. As soon as you have one, you seem to want to throw it away. It is silly of you, for there is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about. A portrait like this would set you far above all the young men in England, and make the old men quite jealous, if old men are ever capable of any emotion.

The picture of Dorian Gray

I have put too much of myself into it. Upon my word, Basil, I didn't know you were so vain; and I really can't see any resemblance between you, with your rugged strong face and your coal-black hair, and this young Adonis, who looks as if he was made out of ivory and rose-leaves. Why, my dear Basil, he is a Narcissus, and you--well, of course you have an intellectual expression and all that.

But beauty, real beauty, ends where an intellectual expression begins. Intellect is in itself a mode of exaggeration, and destroys the harmony of any face. The moment one sits down to think, one becomes all nose, or all forehead, or something horrid. Look at the successful men in any of the learned professions.

How perfectly hideous they are! Except, of course, in the Church. But then in the Church they don't think.

I wanted to have you all to myself. I was only happy when I was with you. This telling confession altered very slightly by the editor of Lippincotts before publication in the magazine was deleted from the version, in which the intensity of Hallwards worship is at once lessened and transformed into something more innocuous: the painters quest for a Platonic ideal in art.

In the wake of the Cleveland Street Scandal, Wilde had particular reason to be cautious in his published writings. Like Dorian, he was harboring his own secrets.

Since at least , Wilde had been leading a secret double life, designed to conceal his sexual orientation and extramarital affairs from close family members and respectable society. In that year he had allowed himself to be seduced by the boyish Robert Ross, with whom he embarked on a two-year love affair, though this did not preclude either man from taking other lovers.

From this time onward, he consciously recognized and acted upon his homosexual predilections and began, in the words of Richard Ellmann, to think of himself as a criminal, moving guiltily among the innocent Ellmann, p. As Ellmann observes, the event may even be coded into the plot of Dorian Gray, since in late , around the time Wilde met Ross, Wilde turned thirty-two, and there is little other explanation for why he felt impelled to change the date on which Dorian Gray commences a life of unprecedented criminality, from the eve of his own thirty-second birthday, in the Lippincotts version, to the eve of his thirty-eighth birthday in the book version.

Miles died obscurely in and is sometimes said to be the real-life figure on whom the painter Basil Hallward is based. But the need for deception and concealment was undoubtedly heightened by Wildes marriage to the beautiful Constance Lloyd, with whom Oscar fathered two sons shortly after their wedding in His marriage to Constance may have been a genuine attempt on Wildes part to overcome or deny his existing homosexual proclivities.

But there can be little question that, especially after his affair with Ross had begun, Wilde was play-acting the roles of dutiful husband and father, and increasingly allowing himself to be drawn into homosexual relationships and modes of behavior that he knew threatened to expose his double life.

If he had not known it before he met Ross, certainly Wilde must have felt afterward that, as Lord Henry puts it, there are certain temperaments that marriage makes more complex and that the one charm of marriage is that it makes a life of deception necessary for both parties. According to Constances brother, Otho, it was not until and the months leading up to Wildes arrest that Constance began to suspect her husbands real sexual orientation. From onward, Wilde began actively courting a young poet named John Gray, twelve years his junior but looking even younger than his years, famed among both men and women of his day for his unearthly good looks: What a fascinating man, one besotted female admirer remarked upon seeing Gray at the opera; I never knew that anybody could be so beautiful.

And in February , when Wildes composition of the novel was at its fiercest, Gray converted to Catholicism in a conscious attempt to quash his own sinfulness. But by Grays own account, he thereafter immediately. But his intimacy with Wilde lasted until late , when, following an intense personal crisis, he renounced Wilde for good in favor of a Catholic religious devotion that would eventually lead him to the priesthood.

Gray is often said to constitute a real-life model for Dorian Gray, and at one point he even signed a letter to Wilde, Yours ever, Dorian. As Ellmann says, for Wilde to call his leading character Gray was, as far as the real Gray was concerned, almost certainly a form of courtship Ellmann, p. The other crucial erotic relationship into which Wilde entered was the long, complex affair with Lord Alfred Douglas, which would prove to be disastrous for Wilde, as we shall shortly see, though the affair did not start until one year after the publication of Dorian Gray.

Ironically, it was the novel that was, at least in part, responsible for bringing the two men together: Douglas, who was obsessed with The Picture of Dorian Gray, longed to meet its author and, according to Ellmann, read the novel nine times over before the friendship began. At any rate, it was Douglas who initiated Wilde into Londons homosexual subculture of procurers and rent boys: previously Wilde had sought the company, chiefly, of male poets, attracted as he was to an ideal of masculinity embodied by the beautiful male protagonist of his own poem Charmides, named after a character in Platos Dialogues.

Passionate in his pursuit of rough trade, Douglas led Wilde down a path of risky, dangerous, and even reckless behavior that would eventually incriminate him.

While serving his prison sentence, Wilde famously recalled that he had been feasting with panthers and that the danger was half the excitement. Acknowledging that Dorian and Lord Henry contain elements of John Gray and Lord Ronald Gower does not begin to account for the complexity of these characters or for their vibrancy on the page, and it is a clich of criticism that novelists draw upon experiences and relationships that are familiar to them personally.

Nonetheless, the novel does have numerous autobiographical elements, and Wilde on one occasion remarked that it contains much of me in it. Wildes comment suggests that the novel is a work of art that embodies his own secret, just as Hallwards portrait of Dorian encodes the painters illicit love for his younger subject.

the uncensored picture of dorian gray

Wildes phrase in other ages reminds uslike the name Dorian itselfthat love between men was tolerated and celebrated openly in Ancient Greece but that in Wildes own day, by contrast, a harsh, uncomely Puritanism. Wilde was conscious that the novel reflected the multiple strands of his personality and sexual life.

That intolerance was, tragically, to be made powerfully manifest in the spring of , when, at the height of his fame, Wilde was to be arrested, convicted, and sentenced to two years imprisonment with hard labor for the new crime of gross indecency.

The arrest, at least, was partly of his own making.

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition

Douglass father, the Marquess of Queensberrythe screaming, scarlet Marquess, as Wilde called him, a pugnacious paranoiac whose deep aversion to Wilde and homosexuals was matched only by his passion for the manly sports of hunting and boxing he was the originator of the Queensberry Rules in boxing had been bridling at his youngest sons involvement with Wilde since its inception.

In June , Queensberry appeared unannounced at Wildes house, accompanied by a prize-fighter, and had to be forcibly ejected from the premises; and then on February 14, , on the opening night of The Importance of Being Earnest, Wilde had got wind of, and foiled, an attempt by Queensberry to enter the theater and publicly denounce Wilde from the stage. On February 18, , Queensberry left a calling card at Wildes club, the Albermarle Club, on which he had scrawled with the word sodomite misspelled , For Oscar Wilde, posing somdomite.

Because sodomy the ancient, biblically derived term for unnatural sex was a criminal offense under both the Criminal Law Amendment Act and the Offences against the Person Act, Queensberrys scrawl formed the legal basis for libel charges.

Right up to the commencement of the libel trial, a number of close friendsFrank Harris, George Bernard Shaw, George Alexanderurged Wilde to abandon the prosecution. But Wildes judgment was seriously impaired by his love for Douglas, who wanted vengeance on his father, as well as by the virulence of Queensberrys persecution, and he foolishly allowed the prosecution to proceed: My whole life seems ruined by this man, he confessed to Ross on the night Queensberry had left the offensive card.

The tower of ivory is assailed by the foul thing. On the sand is my life spilt.

The libel trial began on April 3, and as it proceeded the evidence against Wilde became overwhelming. Edward Carson, Queensberrys counsel, began defending his client by using passages from the Lippincotts text of Dorian GrayCarson was aware that such passages were considerably muted for the book edition, and in court he referred to the latter as the purged edition.

But a few minutes later, Carson had moved onto surer ground, interrogating Wilde about his relationships with a series of blackmailers, male prostitutes, and the procurer Alfred Taylor, as well as with the booksellers clerk Edward Shelley.

This line of interrogation was especially damaging to Wildes case and would have implications beyond the libel trial. Wilde and his attorney were unaware that Carson had secured depositions from a number of these figures, who were willing to turn witness against Wilde; but before Carson had even mounted his case for the defense, the trial collapsed with Wilde agreeing to his counsels advice to abandon the proceedings. In the event, he had to listen in court to the judicial ruling that Queensberrys charge was legally justified, or true in fact, and that it had been published for the public benefit.

It had become increasingly clear in the course of the libel trial that, as a result of the evidence arrayed in defense of Queensberry, Wilde had opened himself up to criminal prosecution under Statute 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act. Moreover, at one point, Wildes counsel had quoted from a letter, written from Queensberry to his father-in-law, ostensibly about Queensberrys ex-wifes encouragement of Lord Alfred Douglas, in which the names of Lord Rosebery and William Ewart Gladstonerespectively Britains prime minister and his predecessorwere mentioned.

By reading from the letter in court, Wildes counsel had meant to imply that Queensberry was paranoid and vindictive for suspecting the two high-ranking politicians of covering up a homosexual affair between Rosebery and Queensberrys oldest son, Francis Douglas, Viscount Drumlanrig, who had committed suicide in dubious circumstances in But according to Carsons biographer, once Roseberys and Gladstones names were introduced in court, it was inevitable that Wilde would be tried, in order to avoid the appearance that Rosebery and Gladstone were intervening on Wildes behalf to protect themselves.

But Wilde declined, and though some hours intervened between the end of the collapsed libel trial and the issuing of an arrest warrant, Wilde was arrested at the Cadogan Hotel at p. The first trial opened at the Old Bailey on April 26, Around this time Wildes name was removed from the billboards and programs of the theaters where his plays The Importance of Being Earnest and An Ideal Husband were running.

The Crown made extensive use of the evidence gathered by Queensberrys detectives and lawyers, and this time the witnesses were produced in court. An array of young male prostitutes, hotel servants, and others were called to offer evidence for the prosecutionsome of it quite lurid in its details.

The judge, however, took a dim view of the prosecutions use of literary evidence, and later enjoined the jury not to base their judgment on the fact that Wilde was the author of The Picture of Dorian Gray and not to allow themselves to be influenced against [Wilde] by the circumstances that he has written a book of which you, in so far as you have read extracts from it, may disapprove.

He asked Wilde to explain the meaning of the phrase the love that dare not speak its name now of course little more than a clichd euphemism for homosexuality. Wildes answer provided what is perhaps the most indelible moment of the two criminal trials: The Love that dare not speak its name in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare.

It is that deep, spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as the Love that dare not speak its name, and on account of it I am placed where I am now. It is beautiful, it is fine, it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it.

The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde

It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an elder and a younger man, when the elder man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him. That it should be so, the world does not understand. The world mocks at it and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it. When a hung jury was declared, on May 1, matters might have ended there, with Wilde utterly disgraced in the publics eye. Even Edward Carson is said to have appealed to the Crown to let up.

But the politics of a highly publicized trial demanded the Crown proceed afresh, with Sir Frank Lockwood, the solicitor-general, leading Wildes prosecution this time.

A verdict of guilty on all counts was delivered on May 25, four days after the second criminal trial had begun. The presiding judge, Justice Wills, called it the worst case I have ever tried and imposed a sentence of two years in prison with hard labor, the maximum sentence allowed under the law. Addressing Wilde directly, Justice Wills said, In my judgment [the sentence] is totally inadequate for a case such as this. Amid the cries of shame heard in the court, Wilde was reported to have said, And I?

May I say nothing, my lord? Some of his other revisions at this time were also attempts to deflect criticismintroducing into the book version more patently melodramatic and sentimental elements of plot; expanding Lord Henrys witty repartee so that the novel might be seen as a work of silver-fork fiction, not unlike the novels of Disraeli and Bulwer-Lytton; incorporating material designed to suggest that Dorians sins consisted at least partly of financial malfeasance and opium abuse; and bringing the novel to a clearer, more conventional moral conclusion.

When the typescript of the novel, containing over 3, words of handwritten emendations by Wilde, arrived at the Lippincott offices in the spring of , it caused immediate alarm. Stoddart, the editor of the magazine, had commissioned Wilde to write a fiction of 35, words, but he could not have anticipated the occasionally graphic nature of the novel that finally appeared on his desk.

After consulting with a handful of advisors to determine whetherand if so howthe novel might be published, Stoddart decided to proceed cautiously.

He now set about making or overseeing numerous changes to Wildes typescript, including the excision of some words that he feared would be objectionableor worse. As the response by the British press and W. We can imagine that Stoddart, when he learned of the outcry against the novel in Britain, must have felt he hadnt removed quite enough of the objectionable passages.

For reasons explained in the Textual Introduction that follows, Wilde almost certainly never saw any of the edits to his novel until he opened his personal copy of Lippincotts Monthly Magazine. Had he been given the opportunity to review Stoddarts edits, would he have approved them? It is entirely possible that, as a still relatively inexperienced author, he would have been governed by his editors judgment. On the other hand, Wilde, always the aesthete, might have taken the aesthetic high ground, as he was to do with critics of the novel soon after its publication, and objected to Stoddarts tampering with his art.

In his life and writing, Wilde was playing a dangerous game of hiding and revealing his sexual orientation. The version of the novel that appears in this book follows Wildes emended typescript: it represents the novel as Wilde envisioned it in the spring of , before Stoddart began to work his way through the typescript with his pencil and before Wildes later selfcensorship of the novel, when he revised and enlarged it for Ward, Lock, and Company.

The result is a more daring and scandalous novel, more explicit in its sexual content, and for that reason less content than either of the two subsequent published versions in adhering to Victorian conventions of representation.

The Picture of Dorian Gray: An Annotated, Uncensored Edition, published in , on which this edition is based, marked the first time Wildes typescript has been published, more than years after its author submitted it to Lippincotts for publicationa fitting, timely embodiment of what Wilde meant when he confessed that Dorian Gray is what I would like to bein other ages, perhaps. When defending Dorian Gray against the attacks to which it was subjected in the British press, Wilde repeatedly took the aesthetic high ground in his exchanges with newspaper editors, at least initially, before his resolve was worn down and he felt at last browbeaten into addressingas openly as he couldcharges of the novels immorality.

But early in these exchanges, we see him insisting again and again on the separation of art and ethics I am quite incapable of understanding how any work of art can be criticised from a moral standpoint.

The sphere of art and the sphere of ethics are absolutely distinct and separate. There is no such thing as a moral or immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all. The true artist is a man who believes absolutely in himself. The artist is never morbid. He expresses everything.

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Art and its proper relationship to life are after all the central preoccupation of Wildes fictions, plays, essays, and lectures. It is worth keeping in mind, too, that Wilde was a lecturer on art and aesthetics long before his fame as a fiction writer and playwright. An understanding of Wildes enduring artistic concerns is as important to a larger appreciation of Dorian Gray as some knowledge of his biography and the circumstances in which his novel was published.

No reader perhaps can fail to appreciate that Dorian Gray is a novel that abounds in commentary on painting and portraiture Chapter I is an extended conversation between Lord Henry and Basil Hallward about the painters portrait of Dorian.

Wilde was greatly influenced in his writing of the novel by the cult of aesthetic portraiture that then dominated the transatlantic arts scene and that stands at the imaginative center of his novel the novel takes its title not from its central character but from a picture or portrait of him. Artistic portraiture was undergoing a major renaissance in the late Victorian era: it reached its apogee in the early s in the celebrated portraits of John Singer Sargent, James McNeill Whistler, and G.

They were less interested in a strictly faithful depiction of their subjects than in a more interpretive rendition, and they often exaggerated their sitters beauty or the lavishness of their dress and surroundings. They were greatly influenced by the poet-painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who, in the s and s, strove to capture a transcendent, unearthly ideal in his portraits of his lovers Fanny Cornforth, Alexa Wilding, and Jane Morris. Rossettis paintingsand those of his fellow Pre-Raphaelites emphasized an aesthetic of beauty for its own sake, and for that reason Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelites are often said to be precursors to the Aesthetic movement and an important influence on the thought and writings of Wilde.

The Pre-Raphaelites were also interested in the decorative arts. William Morris, a versatile poet, novelist, designer, and printer, was devoted to handcrafted work and a decorative arts ideal that took its inspiration from the workshop practices of late-medieval Europe. His firm was founded in response to what Morris saw as a growing gap between fine and applied arts and the shoddy machine-made products then making their way into English homes with the expansion of the Industrial Revolution.

He also promoted the idea of a completely designed and unified living environmentwhich explains in part the wide range of Morriss interests in the industrial arts. In his emphasis on such an environment and the need to beautify everyday existence, he was enormously influential on Wilde. Your work comes from the sheer delight of making beautiful things, Wilde told Morris: no alien motive ever interests you, so that in its singleness of aim, as well as in its perfection of result, it is pure art.

Wilde often decorates the rooms in his novel according to the principles of the house beautiful. In his letter to the Daily Chronicle of June 30, , when Wilde called Dorian Gray an essay on decorative art, he was signaling his indebtedness to Morris and Rossetti. He was making a claim, too, about the novels departure from nineteenth-century realism and the fact that its real power lay in its language: Finally, let me say thisthe aesthetic movement produced certain colours, subtle in their loveliness and fascinating in their almost mystical tone.

They were, and are, our reactions against the crude primaries of a doubtless more respectable but certainly less cultivated age. My story is an essay on decorative art. It reacts against the crude brutality of plain realism.

It is poisonous if you like, but you cannot deny that it is also perfect, and perfection is what we artists aim at. We can see this most clearly perhaps in Chapter IX, the novels most intractable and difficult chapter, where Wilde largely abandons dialogue and narrative technique in favor of language that approaches prose poetry: G E N E RA L I N T R O D U C T I O N 25 There was a gem in the brain of the dragon, Philostratus told us, and by the exhibition of golden letters and a scarlet robe the monster could be thrown into a magical sleep, and slain.

According to the great alchemist Pierre de Boniface, the Diamond rendered a man invisible, and the Agate of India made him eloquent. The Cornelian appeased anger, and the Hyacinth provoked sleep, and the Amethyst drove away the fumes of wine. The Garnet cast out demons, and the Hydropicus deprived the Moon of her colour. The Selenite waxed and waned with the Moon, and the Meloceus, that discovers thieves, could be affected only by the blood of kids.

Leonardus Camillus had seen a white stone taken from the brain of a newly-killed toad, that was a certain antidote against poison. The bezoar, that was found in the heart of the Arabian deer, was a charm that could cure the plague. In the nests of Arabian birds was the Aspilates, that, according to Democritus, kept the wearer from any danger by fire. Like Le Secret de Raoul, the novel that comes to exert such an intoxicating influence over Dorian, Wildes language in Chapter IX possesses a curious jewelled style, vivid and obscure at once, full of argot and of archaisms, of technical expressions and of elaborate paraphrases.

Foreign and esoteric objects abound in the chapter, and it is a well-documented fact that many of Wildes descriptions of textiles, jewels, and musical instruments draw heavily from published sources such as William Joness History and Mystery of Precious Stones Claims that such passages are instances of plagiarism are misplaced, however.

Wildes creative appropriations from nonfiction works are motivated by the imaginative possibilities of the factor what Lord Henry would call the mystery of the visible. Wilde wants to render both the perceptual reality of things and their suggestiveness or mystery. Unlike the realist writer, Wilde does not seek to render a familiar world. He seeks to capture the worlds strangenessto defamiliarize it, as the Russian formalist critic Victor Shklovsky would say, since art exists that one may recover the sensation of life: it exists to make one feel things, to make the stone stony.

The purpose of art is to impart the sensation of things as they are perceived and not as they are known. Pater was not, as Denis Donoghue observes, an original thinker, but his presence is everywhere felt in the late Victorian era the Aesthetic movement, Pre-Raphaelitism, Decadence , and he set modern literature upon its antithetical[Pater] would say its antinomiancourse.

And his embrace of art for arts sake was against the grain of the Victorian belief, articulated by Matthew Arnold and John Ruskin, in arts social and moral function. Shy and reserved by nature, Pater was appointed to his fellowship at Brasenose College in , and for many years he was known only among a small circle at Oxford for his scholasticism and critical views of Christianity.

There is little to suggest in his early career that this retiring Casaubon-like scholar would become a countercultural figure and lightning rod. The essays in Studies do not form a history in the usual sense of the word but rather attempt to define a Renaissance sensibility, locating in some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and poems of the Italian and French Renaissance, as well as in the career of the eighteenth-century German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann, a secret Hellenistic tradition.He turned away, and went downstairs again to drink at the bar.

As he left, Lord Henry thought about this sad story. The face in the picture would grow old and ugly and unkind, but he would stay beautiful for ever.

However, Dorian considers himself as a man who has already gone too far, so there is not a point to go back now. Those who are faithful know only the trivial side of love: It had taught him to love his own beauty. Lord Henry talked, in his lazy, amusing way. He suddenly feels fear and remembers his vow to give his soul in return for eternal youth, and realizes that it might become true, so not wanting all his sins to be left as a mark on the portrait, he decides to apologize and reconcile with Sibyl the next day.