Oracle Database 11g: The Complete Reference. Kevin Loney. New York Chicago San Francisco. Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan. New Delhi San. Read books online. Ebook viewer. The Definitive Guide to Oracle Database 11g. Get full details on the powerful features of Oracle Database 11g from this thoroughly updated Oracle Press guide.

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Oracle Database Reference, 11g Release 2 (). E Copyright © , , Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Bert Rich. Oracle Database 11g DBA Handbook (Osborne ORACLE Press Series) · Read more Oracle Database 11g The Complete Reference. Read more. Beginning Oracle Database 11g Administration: From Novice to Professional. Read more Oracle Database 11g The Complete Reference · Read more.

Working with Tablespaces Chapter Accessing Remote Data Chapter Using Materialized Views Chapter Using External Tables Chapter Using Flashback Queries Chapter Flashback-Tables and Databases Chapter SQL Replay. Online Application Upgrades Chapter Triggers Chapter Procedures, Functions, and Packages Chapter Using Large Objects Chapter Advanced Object-Oriented Concepts. An Introduction to Java Chapter Java Stored Procedures.

Case Studies in Tuning Chapter Oracle Real Application Clusters Chapter Certified downloader , Chennai. Certified downloader , Ranaghat. Certified downloader , New Delhi. Certified downloader , Vadodara. Certified downloader , Kolkata.

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The "c" in the current release, Oracle Database 18c, stands for "Cloud". Previous releases e. Oracle Database 10g and Oracle9i Database have used suffixes of "g" and "i" which stand for "Grid" and "Internet" respectively.

Prior to the release of Oracle8i Database, no suffixes featured in Oracle Database naming conventions. Note that there was no v1 of Oracle Database, as Larry Ellison , "knew no one would want to download version 1". July on-prem: The Oracle Database Administrators Guide includes a brief history on some of the key innovations introduced with each major release of Oracle Database. Oracle Database may be licensed and deployed on-premises on a choice of platforms including Oracle Engineered Systems, and on-Cloud with a choice of services running on general purpose hardware or Exadata.

The various editions and Cloud services provide different levels of database functionality for difference use cases e. Oracle Database Cloud Services are available on a choice of general purpose hardware and Exadata engineered systems, in either virtual machines environments or 'bare metal' infrastructure now known as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. As of [update] , the latest Oracle Database version In , Oracle Corporation announced the availability of Oracle Database Appliance , a pre-built, pre-tuned, highly available clustered database server built using two SunFire X86 servers and direct attached storage.

Oracle Database Reference, 11g - Oracle Documentation

Some Oracle Enterprise Edition databases running on certain Oracle-supplied hardware can use Hybrid Columnar Compression for more efficient storage. The Oracle Database offers a wide range of options [18] and features in the areas of Availability, Scalability, Analytics, Performance, Security, Management, Developers and Integration.

These aim to enhance and complement existing database functionality to meet customer-specific requirements. Apart from the clearly defined database options, Oracle databases may include many semi-autonomous software sub-systems, which Oracle Corporation sometimes refers to as "features" in a sense subtly different from the normal use of the word. Oracle database provides a long list of supported data models that can be used and managed inside Oracle database:. Oracle Corporation classifies as "utilities" bundled software supporting data transfer, data maintenance and database administration.

As of [update] Oracle Corporation had started a drive toward "wizard"-driven environments with a view to enabling non-programmers to produce simple data-driven applications. It incorporates standard and customized reporting. Oracle's OPatch provides patch management for Oracle databases.

Oracle Database can be accessed from many programming languages and environments. These include:. The support site provides users of Oracle Corporation products with a repository of reported problems, diagnostic scripts and solutions. It also integrates with the provision of support tools, patches and upgrades.

The data captured provides an overview of the Oracle Database environment intended for diagnostic and trouble-shooting. Oracle Corporation also endorses certain practices and conventions as enhancing the use of its database products. The Oracle Certification Program , a professional certification program, includes the administration of Oracle Databases as one of its main certification paths.

It contains three levels:.

However, since they share many of the same customers, Oracle and IBM tend to support each other's products in many middleware and application categories for example: Database products licensed as open source are, by the legal terms of the Open Source Definition , free to distribute and free of royalty or other licensing fees.

An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID [74] —comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage.

An instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number or activation id: Oracle documentation can refer to an active database instance as a "shared memory realm".

In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs or logs , which hold transactional history. Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs offline redo logs , which provide the basis for data recovery and for the physical-standby forms of data replication using Oracle Data Guard.

In version 10 g , grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use CPU resources from another node in the grid. Information is shared between nodes through the interconnect—the virtual private network. The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files " datafiles ".

Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. A DBA can impose maximum quotas on storage per user within each tablespace. The partitioning feature was introduced in Oracle 8. Specific partitions can then be added or dropped to help manage large data sets. Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace.

A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user- objects in the database.

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Since version 8 i , the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces that store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces. At the physical level, data files comprise one or more data blocks , where the block size can vary between data files. Data files can occupy pre-allocated space in the file system of a computer server, use raw disk directly, or exist within ASM logical volumes.

After the installation process sets up sample tables, the user logs into the database with the username scott and the password tiger. Other default schemas [83] [84] include:. Each Oracle instance allocates itself an SGA when it starts and de-allocates it at shut-down time. The information in the SGA consists of the following elements, each of which has a fixed size, established at instance startup:. Every Oracle database has one or more physical datafiles, which contain all the database data.

The data of logical database structures, such as tables and indexes, is physically stored in the datafiles allocated for a database. Data in a datafile is read, as needed, during normal database operation and stored in the memory cache of Oracle Database.

For example, if a user wants to access some data in a table of a database, and if the requested information is not already in the memory cache for the database, then it is read from the appropriate datafiles and stored in memory. Modified or new data is not necessarily written to a datafile immediately. To reduce the amount of disk access and to increase performance, data is pooled in memory and written to the appropriate datafiles all at once.

The library cache [89] stores shared SQL, caching the parse tree and the execution plan for every unique SQL statement. This reduces the amount of memory needed and reduces the processing-time used for parsing and execution planning. The data dictionary comprises a set of tables and views that map the structure of the database. Oracle databases store information here about the logical and physical structure of the database. The data dictionary contains information such as:.

The Oracle instance frequently accesses the data dictionary to parse SQL statements. Oracle operation depends on ready access to the data dictionary—performance bottlenecks in the data dictionary affect all Oracle users. Because of this, database administrators must make sure that the data dictionary cache [90] has sufficient capacity to cache this data. Without enough memory for the data-dictionary cache, users see a severe performance degradation. Allocating sufficient memory to the shared pool where the data dictionary cache resides precludes this particular performance problem.

The Program Global Area [91] [92] or PGA memory-area of an Oracle instance contains data and control-information for Oracle's server-processes or background process. The size and content of the PGA depends on the Oracle-server options installed.

This area consists of the following components:. The Oracle RDBMS typically relies on a group of processes running simultaneously in the background and interacting to monitor and expedite database operations. Typical operating environments might include — temporarily or permanently — some of the following individual processes shown along with their abbreviated nomenclature: Oracle Database terminology distinguishes different computer-science terms in describing how end-users interact with the database:.

Oracle databases control simultaneous access to data resources with locks alternatively documented as "enqueues". Oracle locks fall into three categories: Database administrators control many of the tunable variations in an Oracle instance by means of values in a parameter file. Layers or modules in the kernel depending on different releases may include the following given with their inferred meaning: Oracle Resource Manager aims to allocate CPU resources between users and groups of users when such resources become scarce.

Oracle Corporation has stated in product announcements that manageability for DBAs improved from Oracle9i to 10g. The researchers concluded that "Oracle10g represents a giant step forward from Oracle9i in making the database easier to use and manage".

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Various file-system structures hold logs and trace files, which record different aspects of database activity. Configurable destinations for such records can include:. Oracle Net Services allow client or remote applications to access Oracle databases via network sessions using various protocols. Oracle Database software comes in 63 language-versions including regional variations such as British English and American English. Variations between versions cover the names of days and months, abbreviations, time-symbols such as A.

Oracle Corporation provides database developers with tools and mechanisms for producing internationalized database applications: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Old version. Older version, still supported. Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release.

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Main article: Oracle Certification Program. System Global Area. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September IT portal Software portal Companies portal. Retrieved Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 1 March Packt Publishing Ltd. Oracle Corporation. Archived from the original PDF on 20 January Retrieved 7 February This approach [ Oracle Technology Network. Retrieved 17 February Oracle Help Center.

The Oracle Spatial and Graph option for Oracle Database 12c includes advanced features for spatial data and analysis; physical, network, and social graph applications; and a foundation to help location-enable business applications. Spatial indexes and operators". Pro Oracle Spatial for Oracle Database 11g. Expert's voice in Oracle. A majority of the functionality of spatial indexes and spatial operators is part of Oracle Locator included in all editions of the Oracle Database.

Oracle Essentials: Oracle Database 11g. Oracle In-Focus Series. Kittrell, North Carolina: Rampant TechPress. Don Burleson, ed.

Oracle Database 10g New Features: Oracle In-Focus series. In the fast-start parallel rollback method, the background process SMON [ Oracle Database Licensing Information 11g Release 1 May Oracle Database 10g: Archived from the original on 15 May Oracle Tools and Products".

Oracle Information Integration, Migration, and Consolidation. Heterogeneous Services provides [sic] transparent and generic gateway technology to connect to non-Oracle systems. Heterogeneous Services is an integrated component of the database. Database Server Enterprise Edition". Archived from the original on 13 May The Oracle Data Provider for.

Oracle Database Reference, 11g - Oracle Documentation

NET data access to the Oracle database. Oracle Magazine. Oraxcle Technology Network.

Achieving Extreme Performance with Oracle Exadata. Manmeet Ahluwalia; et al. October Oracle Database Licensing Information 11g Release 2 Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 9 February Lahore University of Management Sciences.

A user query that accesses a table or view having a security policy, is dynamically and transparently modified by appending a predicate. A secure application context is created for each user at log in. Oracle Application Express is a no-cost option of the Oracle database. Oracle Transaction Management". Expert Oracle Database 10g Administration. ITPro collection. Managing Default Accounts". Practical Oracle Security: Rockland, Massachusetts: Workspace Manager is a tool used to manage multiple versions of data within the same database.

Oracle Database Documentation. Digital Press. Oracle Multimedia is a feature that enables Oracle Database to store, manage, and retrieve multimedia data in an integrated manner with other enterprise information. Oracle Database Online Documentation, 10g Release 2 Oracle Utilities [ Oracle SQL Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. The oradebug utility can be used to enable and disable tracing for a session. In St. Amant, Kirk; Still, Brian.Typical operating environments might include — temporarily or permanently — some of the following individual processes shown along with their abbreviated nomenclature: Osborne Oracle Press.

Archived from the original PDF on 8 June Oracle 6. Retrieved 19 December