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PDF | An exhaustive treatise on principles of electrical engineering for under graduate Book · May with 82, Reads Join for free. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical Electrical engineering everything you should have learned in school – but probably A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. my first tour there, and getting a “free lunch. Electrical Engineering. Are you an electrical or electronic engineering student? Then our free engineering eBooks on electric circuits or electromagnetism are for .

This means that a given task should be carried out efficiently and accurately in terms of time and effort spent. These notes are of Made Easy coaching institute, New Delhi. He received his B. Computer Engineering — Concern with digital computer hardware and software. View Notes - Notes on topics of Industrial Engineering. Evolution of industrial engineering Part I In any productive environment, whether it is an industrial plant, an institution such as a hospital, restaurant, office, etc.

Industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. Example; find lean manufacturing downloads, and free industrial electrical training. Industrial Engineering — Concern with the optimization of resources human, materials, facilities, and time in operation of systems. Work study has been utilized by companies to job productivity.

Engineering exams website not the original publisher all Mechanical Engineering books. Electrical Engineering — to engineer an electrical product or system. Industrial Engineering and Operation Research: semester B. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Revelle - Arbeitswissenschaft H. The problems in the comparative measurement of productivity arise when production systems produce different types of output or production systems use different types of resources.

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Other free engineering downloads and industrial books makes this site a valuable addition to your industrial learning systems. In order to avoid large angle swings, the possibility of mechanical damage to the shaft and couplings and loss of synchronism, the natural frequency should not coincide with the frequency of pulsating loads or prime mover torque.

Hunting of this type may be detected from pulsating electrical measurements seen on machine meters and excessive throbbing machine noise.

In both these cases damping arises from induced currents in the damper windings caused by rotor oscillation.

The damping torques decrease with increasing resistance in the paths of the induced currents. Machines operating at the ends of long, high resistance supply lines or having high resistance damper windings can be particularly susceptible to hunting. The possibility of hunting can be seen from the equations in Section 1.

In the transient period of perhaps a second or two following a disturbance, many of the slower reacting power system components can be assumed constant. In the seconds and minutes following a disturbance such slow reacting components may become dominant.

In addition, during the dynamic period, motor loads shed at the start of the disturbance may be automatically restarted.

Dynamic stability studies are more normally carried out for large interconnected systems to assist with the development of strategies for system control following various types of disturbance.

With smaller industrial reticulation the preservation of stability in the transient period is generally regarded as the most important case for investigation. The adaptation of the network in the dynamic interval is left largely up to the natural properties of the system and by automatic or operator control. Induction motors always run asynchronously and stability studies involve a consideration of the load characteristics before and after a system disturbance.

For a fault close to the induction motor the motor terminal voltage is considerably reduced. For a given terminal voltage the current drawn is a function only of speed. As the speed drops the current increases rapidly to several times normal full load value and the power factor drops from, say, 0.

The torque of the motor is approximately proportional to the square of the terminal voltage. System Studies 29 Because of these characteristics substation induction motor loads are often characterized as: 1.

Square law loads such as centrifugal pumps will recover with greater ease than constant torque loads such as reciprocating compressors. These loads may be reconnected automatically after a delay.

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The system designer must, however, consider the possibility of voltage collapse upon reconnection as the starting of motors places a severe burden on generation reactive power supply capability. The starting torque is only about 1. The motor VAr demand is, however, very large because of the poor starting power factor.

The system voltage can be severely depressed before, for example, on-site generator AVR action comes into play. Checks should be made to ensure that direct-on-line DOL starting of a large motor or group of motors does not exceed the VAr capability of local generation in industrial distribution systems.

Such data collection can be time consuming and for older machines such data are not always available. For example, a primary substation infeed from a large grid network with high fault level to an industrial plant can usually be represented as a simple generator with large inertia constant and a transient reactance equal to the short circuit reactance.

Simple load representation to voltage variations falls into one of the following categories: 1. Constant impedance static loads 2. Constant kVA induction motors 3. System Studies 31 Induction motors remote from disturbance and represented as a static load : Fully loaded motors can be represented as constant kVA load.

Partially loaded motors can be represented as constant current loads. Unloaded motors can be represented as constant impedance loads.

System faults will depress voltages and restrict power transfers. Usually, generators will speed up during the fault and the load angle will increase. Some generators may experience an increased load during the fault and will slow down. For the same proportionate loss in load during the fault, generators with lower inertia constants will speed up more quickly.

On-site generators may remain in step with each other but diverge from the apparently high inertia grid infeed. Induction motor slips will increase during the fault. After the fault, stability will be indicated by a tendency for the load angle swings to be arrested, for voltages and frequency to return to prefault values and for induction motor slips to return to normal load values.

If on-site generators remain in synchronism with each other but cannot match the on-site load requirements, a decline in frequency will occur. Load shedding will then be necessary to arrest the decline.

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Practical examples of these principles are given in the case studies in Section 1. Type of fault three phase, single phase to earth, etc. A three phase fault is normally more severe than a single phase fault since the former blocks 32 System Studies Figure 1. The single phase fault allows some power transfer over healthy phases.

Duration of fault. If the fault persists beyond a certain length of time the generators will inevitably swing out of synchronism. The maximum permissible fault duration therefore varies principally with the inertia constant of the generators, the type and location of the fault. System Studies 33 Determination of maximum fault clearing time is often the main topic of a transient stability study.

The limiting case will usually be a three phase fault close up to the generator busbars.

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Low inertia generators H : 1. Location of a fault. Extent of system lost by the fault. If a main transmission interconnector is lost, the generators may not be able to transmit total power and power imbalance can continue to accelerate rotors towards loss of synchronism.

The loss of a faulted section may also lead to overloading of system parts remaining intact. A second loss of transmission due, say, to overload could have serious consequences to an already weakened system.

In order to improve transient stability, fault durations should be kept as short as possible by using high speed circuit breakers and protection systems, particularly to clear faults close to the generators. The incidence of three phase faults can be reduced by the use of metal clad switchgear, isolated phase bus ducting, single core cables, etc.

Impedance earthing further reduces the severity of single phase to earth faults. Appropriate system design can therefore reduce the extent of system outages by provision of more automatic sectionalizing points, segregation of generation blocks onto separate busbars, etc. System transient reactances should be kept as low as possible in order to improve transient stability. Machines and associated generator transformers with low reactance values may be more expensive but may provide a practical solution in a critical case.

These devices can supply leading or lagging VArs to a system and thereby maintain nearly constant voltages at the point of connection in the system. The characteristics of such devices are shown in Fig. Normally the busbar coupler is open and grid infeed is via the non-priority busbar No. On-site generation and a major hp induction motor are connected to busbar No.

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Other smaller motor loads are connected to busbars 3, 4, and 5. System Studies 35 Figure 1. The large induction motors connected to busbars 1 and 5 are represented in detail in order that slip and current variations during a disturbance may be studied. The two groups of smaller V motors connected to busbars 3 and 4 are not to be studied in detail and are represented as constant kVA loads.

On-site generator No. The results of the computer analysis associated with this system for case studies 1 to 4 have been replotted in Figs 1. Generator No. A three phase fault is imagined to occur on the 6. The protection and circuit breaker are such that a total fault duration of 0.

Clearance of the fault disconnects busbar 3 and its associated stepdown transformer from busbar 1 and all other loads are assumed to remain connected.

In Fig.

Shortly after fault clearance, a return towards the original operating load angle position is seen. The generator terminal voltage is also seen to recover towards prefault value. The on-site generator No. System Studies 37 Figure 1. Sections on reactive loads and balanced amplifiers that discuss topics not seen in many other texts. I wish I could read Dutch. This book by Philips appears to be a nice thorough treatment of how vacuum tubes work, how they are built, and how they are applied in radio circuits.

Some very nice photos of tubes in various states of disassembly. A detailed technical discussion on the materials used to make vacuum tubes, including glass, metals, and ceramics, as well as the interfaces between them.. Nice photos of "Appealing Substation Buildings". Wagener, - Thanks to anonymous donor This 2-volume set is a very comprehensive treatment of the theory and manufacture of oxide-coated cathodes for tubes.

Strangely enough, volume I covers more practical aspects, and volume II is mostly physics Seachable DJVU file 2. Seachable DJVU file 3. Bruining, , pages - Thanks to Justin Carmichael A very detailed look at secondary electron emission in vacuum tubes Principles of Electron Tubes , Herbert Reich, , pages Essentially an abridged version of Reich's "Theory and Applications of Electron Tubes" below , this is a college-level text on vacuum tubes.

It doesn't have so much math in it to be hard to understand; though it presents plenty of equations, it also shows graphical solutions that the DIY'er could use.

One of the best books I know of to learn enough about how tubes really work to be able to design with them. A comprehensive text on tubes, how they're made, how they work, and applications circuits.

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Covers tube testers in some detail, as well as early television circuits. Langford Smith, , pages The quintessential vacuum tube design handbook,. This is the older, and smaller, third edition Covers all the essential of tube electronics design, including the basics, tube theory, load lines, amplifier design, etc. Langford Smith, , 1, pages! The later and much more comprehensive version of the RDH3 above, this is probably the best book out there for the casual vacuum tube circuit designer.

Coveted by the audio guys, it also has plenty of info on the design of radio receivers.Features include: The protection and circuit breaker are such that a total fault duration of 0.

System Studies 29 Because of these characteristics substation induction motor loads are often characterized as: 1. Theory and Applications of Electron tubes , Herbert Reich, 2nd edition , pages If there's one book that will bust my website's bandwidth limits, this may be it. Business eBooks are Premium Start a day free trial of our Premium eReader, and gain access to our huge Business eBook library Try for free Try our companywide e-learning solution for free — Click here.

Similarly, in Fig. The ownership of the information lies with the respective authors or institutions. Other smaller motor loads are connected to busbars 3, 4, and 5. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with EU regulation. Location of a fault.