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Power up your mind: learn faster, work smarter / Bill Lucas. p. cm. ways in which you can power up your mind and impr. Comics in French: The European Bande Dessinee in Context Read Online · Download PDF; Save; Cite this Item Historically, the bande dessinée can be seen as the culminating point of a tradition of text/image interaction that appears . Reading bande dessinee: Critical Approaches to French-language Comic Strip by Ann Miller. Read online, or download in secure PDF or secure EPUB format.
Demonstrate understanding of BD as a medium for exploring identity construction through creation of their own BD on conflict identity. Use French language skills to interact with classmates in and out of the classroom. Interpret and extrapolate cultural information from a BD by first doing directed readings, then more independent. Compare and contrast graphic representations of national identity in I and US. Composition a. Indicated by green on the syllabus.
The analytical assignment for this course will examine constructions of national identity and mythology through the imagery of comics. Students will compare representations of France to those of a country of their choosing.
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The paper will cite a minimum of 2 secondary sources. MLA formatting d. The paper will be pages and will be due in late September. Discussion Leading a.
Indicated by on the syllabus b. This is not a presentation, but an opportunity for a student to demonstrate leadership by directing the discussion and posing analytical questions to their peers.
Shop of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
This comic strip was created by the renowned artist Jean Giraud, alias Moebius. Ideal for a general audience, the illustrations present in simple terms the meaning of the Geneva Conventions, the universal humanitarian principles underlying the Movement's efforts and the activities of the different components of the Movement as they work together to help those in need.
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A Comic by Moebius. The narrative genre, with all of its categories intrigue, diegesis, situations, themes, dramatic conflicts, characters, etc. It cuts across different semiotic systems and can incarnate itself indifferently in each of them or rather: I agree here, with Paul Ricoeur,21 that there exists a narrative genre and several narrative species: Thus, as Ricoeur writes: This point of view, which was supportable at the time, is no longer today.
Indeed, those who recognize in the verbal an equal status, in the economy of comics, to the image, begin from the principle that writing is the vehicle of storytelling in general. Yet the multiplicity of narrative forms has rendered this postulate obsolete. To suppose that comics are essentially the site of a confrontation between the verbal and the iconic is, in my opinion, a theoretical counter-truth that leads to an impasse.
If I plead for the recognition of the image as preeminent in status, it is not for the reason that, except on rare occasions, in comics it occupies a more important space than that which is reserved for writing.
Its predominance within the system attaches to what is essential to the production of the meaning that is made through it. Some will surely meet this assertion with skepticism. The cinematographic image was a time-image; it did not arouse the same theoretical embarrassment as the comics image. Of the two great forms of storytelling with images, it is undoubtedly comics that pose the most questions to the literary and plastic arts. Now, the apparent irreducibility of the image and the story is dialectically resolved through the play of successive images and through their coexistence, through their diegetic connections, and through their panoptic display, in As we can see, it is through this collaboration between the arthrology and the spatio-topia that the sequential image is seen to be plainly narrative, without necessarily needing any verbal help.
Jean-Marie Schaeffer is one of the most convincing advocates of this linguistic orthodoxy. I am tempted primarily to oppose to this refusal the fact that it is manifestly counter-intuitive, that it goes against common experience: One also recalls that the generative process of all of these works usually begins through the creation of a scenario. Consequently, it can only discredit image-based stories as narrative forms; the verdict is reached before the trial begins.
This is the insistence on the active cooperation provided by the reader. Comics is a genre founded on reticence. Not only do the silent and immobile images lack the illusionist power of the filmic image, but their connections, far from producing a continuity that mimics reality, offer the reader a story that is full of holes, which appear as gaps in the meaning.
Allow me to recycle something that I wrote elsewhere on the particular illusionism of the narrative art of comics: The panels return nothing but the fragments of the implied world in which the story unfolds, but this world is supposed to be continuous and homogenous, everything transpiring as if the reader, having entered into the world, will never again leave the image to which he has been offered access.
The crossing of frames becomes a largely unconscious and mechanical operation, masked by an investment absorption in the virtual world postulated by the story. The diegesis, this fantastic virtual image, which comprises all of the panels, transcends them, and is where the reader can reside.
I do not cease, in reading, to enter within and to exit. A number of comics lovers have said very similar things. Thus Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle: The terminology was principally fixed in reference to linguistic narration, in particular to novels.
There, the narrative codings are superimposed to a first stage of major adjustments, those of language; it is because of them that we speak of enunciation, since the term is linguistic. It seems to me in any case that Paul Ricoeur defined the proper perspective when he separated the authority of the story from its diverse concrete manifestations, and situated each on a plane of theoretical equality. This principled petition opens the field to comparative studies and to deepening the semiotic It is easy to understand the reasons.
These definitions are of two sorts. This enterprise is no doubt doomed to failure if one considers that, far from verifying the long assumed poverty of expression and intrinsic infantilism, comics rest on a group of coordinating mechanisms that participate in the representation and the language, and that these mechanisms govern in their movements numerous and disparate parameters, of which the dynamic interaction takes on extremely varied forms from one comic to another.
Whatever its successes on the plane of art, one must recognize that any comic: But one also meets definitions of comics that are longer and more articulated, better conforming to the definition of a definition: These differing definitions are retained as pertinent for the number and the identity of their attributes.
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Researchers have not failed to butt heads on this point, as one can see by looking at some clarifying examples. Challenging, and not without some bad faith, each of the conditions proposed by Kunzle, Blackbeard formulated the following definition: A serially published, episodic, open-ended dramatic narrative or series of linked anecdotes about recurrent identified characters, told in successive drawings regularly enclosing ballooned They are equally normative and self-interested, each made to measure in order to support an arbitrary slice of history.
Comics would be a story but it is not necessarily a story. So great is the diversity of what has been claimed as comics, or what is claimed today under diverse latitudes, that it has become almost impossible to retain any definitive criteria that is universally held to be true. I want to demonstrate this for two of the pertinent traits often erected as doctrinal elements: It follows that they can only produce reductive definitions. Frost, to mention not a single French, Spanish, or American artist.
Schiefe and R. As for the presence of a recurrent character, there are diverse ways to bypass this. I will note six: The first is radical: The second case can be considered as an attenuation of the first. One might also remember the famous page by McCay, in Dreams of a Rarebit Fiend, where the protagonist assists in his burial at the bottom of his coffin.
The series was published from to , then restarted in ; the precise date of the particular page is not, to my knowledge, mentioned in any edition. A neighboring case is one where the character is simply held permanently off-screen—one can hear him speak without seeing him—as in Calma chicha , a short story by the Spanish artist Marti.
There is also, while present in the image, the character that is not physically identifiable, because the elements that form his identity and, in the first instance, his face are systematically evaded. A slightly different example would be Un flip coca by Edmond Baudoin , where the features of the heroine are not revealed to the reader except in the last three pages of the book.
She is, until that point, depicted from the back or with her face covered by her hair. An experimental book such as John et Betty by Didier Eberoni proposed an approximation of this practice. The character as a recognizable individual dissolves when all the characters resemble each other, ruining the very idea of identity.
Within a population such as that of the Smurfs, the physical marks of individuation are extremely rare initially reserved for Papa Smurf, Brainy Smurf, and, of course, Smurfette. Here, the process of naming under a form of qualified epithet: Certain stories by Francis Masse or by Florence Cestac have also come close to the total indifferentiation of the body.
Several works by the Bazooka Group illustrate this tendency, as well as the five pages by Crumb entitled City of the Future Thus, two dogmatic criteria, retained for the most part in current definitions of comics, must be dismissed. The difficulty encountered here is not particular to comics. It arises in almost identical terms for the most part, if not completely, in forms of modern art, like the cinema, and for forms where the evolution over the course of a century has smashed the traditional definition novel, painting, music into pieces.
The aporia that the semiotician necessarily unblocks is thus described: If not, must we revise our definition of cinema in a more general-izable manner in order to integrate these counter-examples? But if so, where do we stop this generalization: At the absence of the screen? At the absence of the projector? The relationship established between these images admits several degrees and combines several operations, which I will distinguish later.
But their common denominator and, therefore, the central element of comics, the first criteria in the foundational order, is iconic solidarity. I define this as interdependent images that, participating in a series, present the double characteristic of being separated—this specification dismisses unique enclosed images within a profusion of patterns or anecdotes—and which are plastically and semantically over-determined by the fact of their coexistence in praesentia.
This is the danger noted by Pierre Couperie. From the steles, frescoes, and the ancient Egyptian books of the dead to the predellas of medieval painting, and from the Bayeux Tapestry to the polyptychs of every age, all the way to the pre-Colombian codex, the stations of the cross, the Emakimono Japanese picture scrolls , storyboards for films and modern photo-novels, there are probably too many of these works of art that can find refuge in this potluck collection.
In reality, research on the essence of comics is not quite on the same order as that of a definition of literarity. The point is, in the second case, to separate the literary discourse from all the other forms of discourse, starting with day-to-day language.
It is not noted that everything can be expressed by this means—even if the practice of comics is, technically and financially speaking, available to everyone, as is confirmed by the aptitude of those children who devote themselves to it.
One cannot help but compare it with other forms of creation those, notably, that we have enumerated above that participate with complete rights in the domains of art or fiction. Since comics are not based on a particular usage of a language, there is no place to define them in terms of diction. But neither are they bound exclusively with fictional forms, since there are examples of publicity or propagandistic comics, political and pedagogical comics, and, occasionally, comics journalism, where the concern is to inform or to testify.
We can also add that the proliferation of autobiographical comics is a remarkable phenomenon of recent years, stemming from America, where the works of Robert Crumb, Art Spiegelman, and Harvey Pekar, notably, have opened the door.
This plasticity of comics, which allows them to put in place messages of every order and narrations other than the fictional, demonstrates that before being an art, comics are well and truly a language.
But it is not necessary, at this stage of reflection, to push the concern for the delimitation of the medium further ahead. It will be enough for us that one cannot conceptualize comics without verifying the general rule, that of iconic solidarity. The necessary, if not sufficient, condition required to speak of comics is that the images will be multiple and correlated in some fashion.
This fact is empirically verified by whoever leafs through a comic book or comics magazine. It demands to be traversed, crossed, glanced at, and analytically deciphered. This moment-to-moment reading does not take a lesser account of the totality of the panoptic field that constitutes the page or the double page , since the focal vision never ceases to be enriched by peripheral vision. The epithet, specifically assuming that the image will be the product of a drawing dessin , seems to remove a priori all recourse to the photo, to typography, and even to painting.
More seriously, the notion of the strip bande abusively privileges one of the components of the medium, the horizontal segment52 that sometimes constitutes a micro-story, sometimes nothing other than an ongoing continuing story, or only a portion of a page.
If one believes Jean-Claude Glasser, the reign of this term is historically justified: It remained to designate the daily strips. It is only in the s that it ceased to apply only to daily strips. Now that the book [album] is, in Europe, the preponderant vehicle for comics, it follows that the page is the technical unit, market and aesthetic reference.
As a physical object, every comic can be described as a collection of separate icons and interdependent images. If one considers any given production, one quickly notices that comics that satisfy this minimal condition are naturally longer, but also that they do not all obey the same intentions and do not mobilize the same mechanisms.
All theoretical generalizations are cognizant of the trap of dogmatism. Far from wanting to defend a school of thought, an era or a standard against others, or again to prescribe any recipes, I want to force myself to note the diversity of all forms of comics and spare my reflections from any normative character. That is why I have chosen the notion of the system, which defines an ideal, as emblematic of this reflection. Indeed, comics submit the images of which they are composed to different sorts of relations.
To describe the entirety of these relations, I will use a generic term with a very broad meaning: Comics panels, situated relationally, are, necessarily, placed in relation to space and operate on a share of space. These are the fundamental principles of this spatial distribution that will be examined at the sign of the spatio-topia, a term created by gathering, while maintaining distinct, the concept of space espace and that of place lieu. The precedence accorded to the order of spatial and topological relations goes against most widespread opinion, which holds that, in comics, spatial organization will be totally pledged to the narrative strategies, and commanded by them.
The story will create or dictate, relative to its development, I believe on the contrary that, from the instant that an author begins the comics story that he undertakes, he thinks of this story, and his work still to be born, within a given mental form with which he must negotiate. This form is precisely the spatio-topical apparatus, one of the keys to the system of comics, a complex of units, parameters, and functions that it is up to us to describe.
The taking into account of the form and the preconception of the mode of spatial organization that will be adopted are, as I hope to demonstrate, the preliminary conditions to every beginning, and the constraints that never cease to inform each phase of creation.
From the moment of sketching the first panel of a comic, the author has always already taken, as for the behavior of engaging with the medium, some large strategic options evidently modifiable by what follows , which concern the distribution of spaces and the occupation of places. But comics is not only an art of fragments, of scattering, of distribution; it is also an art of conjunction, of repetition, of linking together.
Within the spatio-topical operation—that is, within the space that comics appropriates and develops—one can distinguish two degrees in the relations between the images. The elementary relations, of the linear type, compose what we will call the restricted arthrology.
Governed by the operation of breaking down decoupage , they put in place the sequential syntagms, which are most often subordinated to the narrative ends.
It is at this level that writing takes priority, as a complementary function of narration. The other relations, translinear or distant, emerge from general arthrology and decline all of the modalities of braiding tressage.
This is not, on the one side, a comparison of spaces that will adopt the spatiotopia, and on the other a comparison of content that comes out of arthrology.
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The articulations of the comics discourse are indistinguishable from the content-incarnated-in-space, or, if one prefers, the spaces-invested-with- content. Thus, the spatio-topia is a part of arthrology, an arbitrarily detached subgroup, with no other autonomy than that which it recognizes for itself, at a given moment, to the heuristic ends. Indeed, it is useful, in order to apprehend certain levels of the functionality of the comics language, to intellectually conceive of this reduction of the page as an assemblage of frames and empty bubbles.
In reality, this assemblage is in no way observable as such, and does not preexist, in an already elaborated form, the final, complete version of the page. Yet, it seems to me, the study of the system of comics must come to terms with the spatio-topia.One can judge their results by examining figures 2 and 3, upon which I am going to linger and comment at length. I will not be successively examining in these pages larger and larger utterances: This spatial dimension of the panel is summarized and resides in the frame.
The increasing popularity of bande dessinee, or French-language comic strip, means that it is being established on university syllabuses worldwide.
Though it is historically based, this last conception is nonetheless theoretically untenable.
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